2KM2

Galectin-1 dimer


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 100 
  • Conformers Submitted: 10 
  • Selection Criteria: structures with the lowest energy 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Lactose binding to galectin-1 modulates structural dynamics, increases conformational entropy, and occurs with apparent negative cooperativity.

Nesmelova, I.V.Ermakova, E.Daragan, V.A.Pang, M.Menendez, M.Lagartera, L.Solis, D.Baum, L.G.Mayo, K.H.

(2010) J Mol Biol 397: 1209-1230

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.02.033
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    2KM2

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Galectins are a family of lectins with a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain that interacts with beta-galactosides. By binding cell surface glycoconjugates, galectin-1 (gal-1) is involved in cell adhesion and migration processes and is an important regulator of tumor angiogenesis ...

    Galectins are a family of lectins with a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain that interacts with beta-galactosides. By binding cell surface glycoconjugates, galectin-1 (gal-1) is involved in cell adhesion and migration processes and is an important regulator of tumor angiogenesis. Here, we used heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling to investigate lactose binding to gal-1 and to derive solution NMR structures of gal-1 in the lactose-bound and unbound states. Structure analysis shows that the beta-strands and loops around the lactose binding site, which are more open and dynamic in the unbound state, fold in around the bound lactose molecule, dampening internal motions at that site and increasing motions elsewhere throughout the protein to contribute entropically to the binding free energy. CD data support the view of an overall more open structure in the lactose-bound state. Analysis of heteronuclear single quantum coherence titration binding data indicates that lactose binds the two carbohydrate recognition domains of the gal-1 dimer with negative cooperativity, in that the first lactose molecule binds more strongly (K(1)=21+/-6 x 10(3) M(-1)) than the second (K(2)=4+/-2 x 10(3) M(-1)). Isothermal calorimetry data fit using a sequential binding model present a similar picture, yielding K(1)=20+/-10 x 10(3) M(-1) and K(2)=1.67+/-0.07 x 10(3) M(-1). Molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into structural dynamics of the half-loaded lactose state and, together with NMR data, suggest that lactose binding at one site transmits a signal through the beta-sandwich and loops to the second binding site. Overall, our results provide new insight into gal-1 structure-function relationships and to protein-carbohydrate interactions in general.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Galectin-1 AB134Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: LGALS1
Find proteins for P09382 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P09382 
Go to UniProtKB:  P09382
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS:  P09382
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 100 
  • Conformers Submitted: 10 
  • Selection Criteria: structures with the lowest energy 
  • OLDERADO: 2KM2 Olderado

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2010-04-14
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance