1KGX

Three Dimensional Structure Analysis of the R195Q Variant of Human Pancreatic Alpha Amylase


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.00 Å
  • R-Value Work: 0.197 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.197 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 2.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Probing the role of the chloride ion in the mechanism of human pancreatic alpha-amylase.

Numao, S.Maurus, R.Sidhu, G.Wang, Y.Overall, C.M.Brayer, G.D.Withers, S.G.

(2002) Biochemistry 41: 215-225

  • DOI: 10.1021/bi0115636
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    1KB3, 1KGX, 1KGW, 1KGU

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Human pancreatic alpha-amylase (HPA) is a member of the alpha-amylase family involved in the degradation of starch. Some members of this family, including HPA, require chloride for maximal activity. To determine the mechanism of chloride activation, a series of mutants (R195A, R195Q, N298S, R337A, and R337Q) were made in which residues in the chloride ion binding site were replaced ...

    Human pancreatic alpha-amylase (HPA) is a member of the alpha-amylase family involved in the degradation of starch. Some members of this family, including HPA, require chloride for maximal activity. To determine the mechanism of chloride activation, a series of mutants (R195A, R195Q, N298S, R337A, and R337Q) were made in which residues in the chloride ion binding site were replaced. Mutations in this binding site were found to severely affect the ability of HPA to bind chloride ions with no binding detected for the R195 and R337 mutant enzymes. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that these mutations did not result in significant structural changes. However, the introduction of these mutations did alter the kinetic properties of the enzyme. Mutations to residue R195 resulted in a 20-450-fold decrease in the activity of the enzyme toward starch and shifted the pH optimum to a more basic pH. Interestingly, replacement of R337 with a nonbasic amino acid resulted in an alpha-amylase that no longer required chloride for catalysis and has a pH profile similar to that of wild-type HPA. In contrast, a mutation at residue N298 resulted in an enzyme that had much lower binding affinity for chloride but still required chloride for maximal activity. We propose that the chloride is required to increase the pK(a) of the acid/base catalyst, E233, which would otherwise be lower due to the presence of R337, a positively charged residue.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
ALPHA-AMYLASE, PANCREATIC A496Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: AMY2A
EC: 3.2.1.1
Find proteins for P04746 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P04746 
Go to UniProtKB:  P04746
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS:  P04746
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
NAG
Query on NAG

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
A
2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose
C8 H15 N O6
OVRNDRQMDRJTHS-FMDGEEDCSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CA
Query on CA

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
A
CALCIUM ION
Ca
BHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Modified Residues  1 Unique
IDChainsTypeFormula2D DiagramParent
PCA
Query on PCA
AL-PEPTIDE LINKINGC5 H7 N O3GLN
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.00 Å
  • R-Value Work: 0.197 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.197 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 53.081α = 90
b = 69.027β = 90
c = 131.827γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
X-PLORmodel building
X-PLORrefinement
X-PLORphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2002-01-16
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-27
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Non-polymer description, Version format compliance
  • Version 2.0: 2019-12-25
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations, Polymer sequence
  • Version 2.1: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Data collection, Derived calculations, Structure summary