Crotamine - Q9PWF3 (MYC2_CRODU)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

  • Number of PDB entries for Q9PWF3: 3
 
Function
Cationic peptide that possesses multiple functions. It acts as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), and as a potent voltage-gated potassium channel inhibitor. It exhibits antimicrobial activities, hind limb paralysis, and severe muscle necrosis by a non-enzymatic mechanism. As a cell-penetrating peptide, crotamine has high specificity for actively proliferating cells, and interacts inside the cell with subcellular and subnuclear structures, like vesicular compartments, chromosomes and centrioles. It penetrates into the cells as fast as five minutes after its addition to cell culture medium (PubMed:18662711). In vivo, after intraperitoneal administration, it is found in cells of peritoneal fluid and bone marrow, demonstrating preferential nuclear and perinuclear localization. To enter the cell, it interacts with the chains of heparan sulfate membrane proteoglycan (HSPG), and is endocytosed (in complex with HSPG) in vesicles which are transported into the cell with the help of clathrin. Inside the cell, crotamine accumulates in lysosomal vesicles. As soon as the peptide accumulates in endosomes/lysosomes vesicles, these compartments are disrupted and their contents released into the cytosol. This loss of lysosomal content induces cell death at high concentrations, or promotes the distribution of crotamine in cytoplasmic compartments, which is a step before crotamine nuclear uptake (PubMed:15231729, PubMed:17491023). As a potassium channel inhibitor, this toxin selectively inhibits Kv1.1/KCNA1, Kv1.2/KCNA2 and Kv1.3/KCNA3 channels with an IC(50) of 369, 386 and 287 nM, respectively (PubMed:22498659). The inhibition of Kv1.3/KCNA channels induced by this toxin occurs rapidly and is voltage-independent. The channel inhibition is reversible after washing, suggesting a pure and classical channel blockage effect, without effects in potassium channel kinetics (PubMed:22498659). As an antimicrobial peptide, crotamine shows antibacterial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis, and antifungal activity against Candida spp., Trichosporon spp. and C.neoformans. It kills bacteria through membrane permeabilization. UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Monomer. UniProt
  • Organism: South American rattlesnake
  • Length:
  • UniProt
  • Other Gene names: CRO2, CRT-P1
This protein in other organisms (by gene name):
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Validation Track

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The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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