Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 9 - Q8IXQ6 (PARP9_HUMAN)


Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

  • Number of PDB entries for Q8IXQ6: 1
ADP-ribosyltransferase which, in association with E3 ligase DTX3L, plays a role in DNA damage repair and in immune responses including interferon-mediated antiviral defenses (PubMed:16809771, PubMed:23230272, PubMed:26479788, PubMed:27796300). Within the complex, enhances DTX3L E3 ligase activity which is further enhanced by PARP9 binding to poly(ADP-ribose) (PubMed:28525742). In association with DTX3L and in presence of E1 and E2 enzymes, mediates NAD(+)-dependent mono-ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin which prevents ubiquitin conjugation to substrates such as histones (PubMed:28525742). During DNA repair, PARP1 recruits PARP9/BAL1-DTX3L complex to DNA damage sites via PARP9 binding to ribosylated PARP1 (PubMed:23230272). Subsequent PARP1-dependent PARP9/BAL1-DTX3L-mediated ubiquitination promotes the rapid and specific recruitment of 53BP1/TP53BP1, UIMC1/RAP80, and BRCA1 to DNA damage sites (PubMed:23230272, PubMed:28525742). In response to DNA damage, PARP9-DTX3L complex is required for efficient non-homologous end joining (NHEJ); the complex function is negatively modulated by PARP9 activity (PubMed:28525742). Dispensable for B-cell receptor (BCR) assembly through V(D)J recombination and class switch recombination (CSR) (By similarity). In macrophages, positively regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines production in response to IFNG stimulation by suppressing PARP14-mediated STAT1 ADP-ribosylation and thus promoting STAT1 phosphorylation (PubMed:27796300). Also suppresses PARP14-mediated STAT6 ADP-ribosylation (PubMed:27796300). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
NAD+ + ADP-D-ribosyln-acceptor = nicotinamide + ADP-D-ribosyln+1-acceptor. UniProt
Pathway Maps
      ESCHER  BiGG
Subunit Structure
Forms a stable complex with E3 ligase DTX3L; the interaction is required for PARP9 mediated ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin (PubMed:12670957, PubMed:28525742). Interacts (via PARP catalytic domain) with DTX3L (via N-terminus) (PubMed:26479788). Forms a complex with STAT1 and DTX3L independently of IFNB1 or IFNG-mediated STAT1 'Tyr-701' phosphorylation (PubMed:26479788). Forms a complex with STAT1, DTX3L and histone H2B HIST1H2BH/H2BJ; the interaction is likely to induce HIST1H2BH/H2BJ ubiquitination (PubMed:26479788). Interacts (via N-terminus) with STAT1 (PubMed:26479788). Interacts with PARP14 in IFNG-stimulated macrophages; the interaction prevents PARP14-mediated STAT1 and STAT6 ADP-riboslylation (PubMed:27796300). Interacts with PARP1 (when poly-ADP-ribosylated) (PubMed:23230272). UniProt
Macro domains 1 and 2 may be involved in the binding to poly(ADP-ribose) (PubMed:28525742, PubMed:26479788). Macro domain 2 is required for recruitment to DNA damage sites (PubMed:23230272). Macro domains 1 and 2 are probably dispensable for the interaction with STAT1 and DTX3L and for STAT1 phosphorylation (PubMed:26479788). UniProt
The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more information.
Data origin/color codes
The vertical color bar on the left side indicates data provenance.
Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
Sequence Mismatches It is now possible to see information about expression tags, cloning artifacts, and many other details related to sequence mismatches.
Icons represent a number of different sequence modifications that can be observed in PDB files. For example the 'T' icon T represents expression tags that have been added to the sequence. The 'E' icon E represents an engineered mutation. However, besides these two, there are many other icons. For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence modification, move the cursor over the icon.
Validation Track

For more details on the Validation Track (Structure Summary Page only) see the dedicated help page.

Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB   and the Protein Model Portal  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
Organism icons generated by flaticon.com under CC BY. The authors are: Freepik, Icons8, OCHA, Scott de Jonge.

For more details on the Protein Feature view see the dedicated help page.