Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein - Q63053 (ARC_RAT)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

  • Number of PDB entries for Q63053: 3
 
Function
Master regulator of synaptic plasticity that self-assembles into virion-like capsids that encapsulate RNAs and mediate intercellular RNA transfer in the nervous system (PubMed:29328916). ARC protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of ARC mRNA into new target cells, where ARC mRNA can undergo activity-dependent translation (PubMed:29328916). ARC capsids are endocytosed and are able to transfer ARC mRNA into the cytoplasm of neurons (PubMed:29328916). Acts as a key regulator of synaptic plasticity: required for protein synthesis-dependent forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) and for the formation of long-term memory (PubMed:10818134, PubMed:17088211, PubMed:17088212, PubMed:17088213). Regulates synaptic plasticity by promoting endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in response to synaptic activity: this endocytic pathway maintains levels of surface AMPARs in response to chronic changes in neuronal activity through synaptic scaling, thereby contributing to neuronal homeostasis (PubMed:17088211, PubMed:17088212). Acts as a postsynaptic mediator of activity-dependent synapse elimination in the developing cerebellum by mediating elimination of surplus climbing fiber synapses (PubMed:23791196). Accumulates at weaker synapses, probably to prevent their undesired enhancement (PubMed:22579289). This suggests that ARC-containing virion-like capsids may be required to eliminate synaptic material (PubMed:29328916). Required to transduce experience into long-lasting changes in visual cortex plasticity and for long-term memory (PubMed:10818134). Involved in postsynaptic trafficking and processing of amyloid-beta A4 (APP) via interaction with PSEN1 (By similarity). In addition to its role in synapses, also involved in the regulation of the immune system: specifically expressed in skin-migratory dendritic cells and regulates fast dendritic cell migration, thereby regulating T-cell activation. UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Homooligomer; homooligomerizes into virion-like capsids (PubMed:29328916). Interacts with SH3GL1/endophilin-2, SH3GL3/endophilin-3 and DNM2/DYN2 (PubMed:17088211). Interacts with CAMK2B (in the kinase inactive state); leading to target ARC to inactive synapses (PubMed:22579289). Interacts with PSEN1. UniProt
Domain
The protein is evolutionarily related to retrotransposon Gag proteins: it contains large N- and C-terminal domains that form a bi-lobar architecture similar to the capsid domain of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag protein (PubMed:29328916, PubMed:25864631). It contains structural elements found within viral Gag polyproteins originated from the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon family and retains the ability to form virion-like capsid structures that can mediate mRNA transfer between cells (PubMed:29328916). Tetrapod and fly Arc protein-coding genes originated independently from distinct lineages of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons (PubMed:29328916). UniProt
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB   and the Protein Model Portal  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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