Copper-exporting P-type ATPase - Q59385 (COPA_ECOLI)

 

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Function
Copper-exporting P-type ATPase: Exports Cu(+) from the cytoplasm to the periplasm (PubMed:10639134, PubMed:11167016, PubMed:11500054, PubMed:12351646). Binds 2 Cu(+) ions per monomer, which are transferred to periplasmic copper chaperone CusF upon ATP hydrolysis (PubMed:24917681). In vitro an excess of CusF over CopA is required for efficient transfer (PubMed:24917681). May also be involved in silver export (PubMed:12351646, PubMed:12832075). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
ATP + H2O + Cu+Side 1 = ADP + phosphate + Cu+Side 2. UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Copper-exporting P-type ATPase interacts with apo-periplasmic copper chaperone CusF; when CusF is precharged with copper it binds very little CopA. The periplasmic loops of CopA, especially the first half of loop 1, play a large role in binding to CusF (PubMed:24917681). UniProt
Domain
The N-terminal domain (exact residues are not given in the paper) is not required for Cu(+)-binding (when deleted KM for Cu(+) binding is 1.32 uM) nor for ATPase activity, binds 2 Cu(+)/monomer (PubMed:24917681). Contradictory results give a considerable decrease in Cu affinity when residues 1-150 are deleted (KM=31.9 uM for Cu(+)) (PubMed:25899340). The first of 2 N-terminal heavy metal-binding domains (HMA 1, approximately residues 1-70, equivalent to CopA(Z)) has a 5-fold higher affinity for Cu(+) than HMA 2 (residues 71-150) and as a protein fragment can transfer Cu(+) to the ATPase fragment (residues 151-834), suggesting it has a Cu-chaperone function (PubMed:25899340). HMA 2 tranfers Cu(+) to HMA 1 but the opposite reaction does not occur in vitro (PubMed:25899340). The HMA 1 fragment complements growth defects in trans, but if its CXXC motif is mutated, or if the remaining CXXC motif in HMA2 is mutated, complementation no longer occurs, showing the 2 HMA domains have different functions (PubMed:25899340). The periplasmic loops of CopA, especially the first half of loop 1, play a large role in binding to CusF (PubMed:24917681). Contradictory results between the various in vitro studies may be due to different levels of protein expression or reconstitution. UniProt
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