Calcium uniporter protein, mitochondrial - Q3UMR5 (MCU_MOUSE)


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Mitochondrial inner membrane calcium uniporter that mediates calcium uptake into mitochondria (PubMed:21685886, PubMed:23900286, PubMed:24212091). Constitutes the pore-forming and calcium-conducting subunit of the uniporter complex (uniplex) (By similarity). Activity is regulated by MICU1 and MICU2 (By similarity). At low Ca(2+) levels MCU activity is down-regulated by MICU1 and MICU2; at higher Ca(2+) levels MICU1 increases MCU activity (By similarity). Mitochondrial calcium homeostasis plays key roles in cellular physiology and regulates cell bioenergetics, cytoplasmic calcium signals and activation of cell death pathways (By similarity). Involved in buffering the amplitude of systolic calcium rises in cardiomyocytes (By similarity). While dispensable for baseline homeostatic cardiac function, acts as a key regulator of short-term mitochondrial calcium loading underlying a 'fight-or-flight' response during acute stress: acts by mediating a rapid increase of mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells (PubMed:26119742, PubMed:26119731, PubMed:25603276). Participates in mitochondrial permeability transition during ischemia-reperfusion injury (PubMed:26119731). Regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells by regulating mitochondrial calcium uptake (By similarity). Mitochondrial calcium uptake in skeletal muscle cells is involved in muscle size in adults (PubMed:25732818). Regulates synaptic vesicle endocytosis kinetics in central nerve terminal (PubMed:26644474). Involved in antigen processing and presentation (PubMed:25251370). UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Component of the uniplex complex, composed of MCU, MCUB, MICU1, MICU2 and EMRE/SMDT1 (By similarity). Heterooligomer with CCDC109B/MCUB; this inhibits channel activity (PubMed:23900286). Homooligomer. Homotetramer (PubMed:23900286). Interacts with MICU1; MICU1 acts as an essential regulator for MCU. Interacts with MCUR1. Interactions with MICU1 and MCUR1 are mutually exclusive. Interacts with MICU2 (By similarity). Interacts with SLC25A23. UniProt
The critical DXXE motif connecting the transmembrane regions forms a pentameric barrel that constitutes the mouth of the pore. Inside the barrel, two acidic residues are in position to form two carboxylate rings. In absence of SMDT1/EMRE regulator, the calcium ions cannot exit the channel, suggesting that SMDT1/EMRE-binding induces conformational rearrangements to allow calcium to exit. UniProt
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