High mobility group protein B1 - P63159 (HMGB1_RAT)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

  • Number of PDB entries for P63159: 6
 
Function
Multifunctional redox sensitive protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. In the nucleus is one of the major chromatin-associated non-histone proteins and acts as a DNA chaperone involved in replication, transcription, chromatin remodeling, V(D)J recombination, DNA repair and genome stability. Proposed to be an universal biosensor for nucleic acids. Promotes host inflammatory response to sterile and infectious signals and is involved in the coordination and integration of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the cytoplasm functions as sensor and/or chaperone for immunogenic nucleic acids implicating the activation of TLR9-mediated immune responses, and mediates autophagy. Acts as danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that amplifies immune responses during tissue injury. Released to the extracellular environment can bind DNA, nucleosomes, IL-1 beta, CXCL12, AGER isoform 2/sRAGE, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and activates cells through engagement of multiple surface receptors. In the extracellular compartment fully reduced HMGB1 (released by necrosis) acts as a chemokine, disulfide HMGB1 (actively secreted) as a cytokine, and sulfonyl HMGB1 (released from apoptotic cells) promotes immunological tolerance (PubMed:23519706, PubMed:23446148, PubMed:23994764, PubMed:25048472). Has proangiogenic activity. May be involved in platelet activation. Binds to phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamide (PubMed:11154118). Bound to RAGE mediates signaling for neuronal outgrowth (PubMed:1885601, PubMed:2461949, PubMed:7592757, PubMed:12183440). May play a role in accumulation of expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins. UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Interacts (fully reduced HMGB1) with CXCL12; probably in a 1:2 ratio involving two molecules of CXCL12, each interacting with one HMG box of HMGB1; inhibited by glycyrrhizin (PubMed:22869893). Associates with the TLR4:LY96 receptor complex (PubMed:20547845). Component of the RAG complex composed of core components RAG1 and RAG2, and associated component HMGB1 or HMGB2 (By similarity). Interacts (in cytoplasm upon starvation) with BECN1; inhibits the interaction of BECN1 and BCL2 leading to promotion of autophagy (PubMed:20819940). Interacts with KPNA1; involved in nuclear import (By similarity). Interacts with AGER (PubMed:12183440). Interacts with PTPRZ1 isoform 3/phosphacan (PubMed:9507007). Interacts with SREBF1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, APEX1, FEN1, POLB, TERT, IL1B, MSH2, XPA, XPC, HNF1A, TP53 (By similarity). Interacts with CD24; the probable CD24:SIGLEC10 complex is proposed to inhibit HGMB1-mediated tissue damage immune response. Interacts with THBD; prevents HGMB1 interaction with ACER/RAGE and inhibits HGMB1 proinflammatory activity. Interacts with HAVCR2; impairs HMGB1 binding to B-DNA and likely HMGB1-mediated innate immume response (By similarity). Interacts with XPO1; mediating nuclear export (PubMed:14532127). UniProt
Domain
The acidic C-terminal domain forms a flexible structure which can reversibly interact intramolecularily with the HMG boxes and modulate binding to DNA and other proteins. UniProt
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Data origin/color codes
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Validation Track

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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB   and the Protein Model Portal  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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