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Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 - P50750 (CDK9_HUMAN)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

Number of PDB entries for P50750: 20
 
Function
Protein kinase involved in the regulation of transcription. Member of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which facilitates the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (C-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) POLR2A, SUPT5H and RDBP. This complex is inactive when in the 7SK snRNP complex form. Phosphorylates EP300, MYOD1, RPB1/POLR2A and AR, and the negative elongation factors DSIF and NELF. Regulates cytokine inducible transcription networks by facilitating promoter recognition of target transcription factors (e.g. TNF-inducible RELA/p65 activation and IL-6-inducible STAT3 signaling). Promotes RNA synthesis in genetic programs for cell growth, differentiation and viral pathogenesis. P-TEFb is also involved in cotranscriptional histone modification, mRNA processing and mRNA export. Modulates a complex network of chromatin modifications including histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1), H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3K36me3; integrates phosphorylation during transcription with chromatin modifications to control co-transcriptional histone mRNA processing. The CDK9/cyclin-K complex has also a kinase activity towards CTD of RNAP II and can substitute for CDK9/cyclin-T P-TEFb in vitro. Replication stress response protein; the CDK9/cyclin-K complex is required for genome integrity maintenance, by promoting cell cycle recovery from replication arrest and limiting single-stranded DNA amount in response to replication stress, thus reducing the breakdown of stalled replication forks and avoiding DNA damage. In addition, probable function in DNA repair of isoform 2 via interaction with KU70/XRCC6. Promotes cardiac myocyte enlargement. RPB1/POLR2A phosphorylation on 'Ser-2' in CTD activates transcription. AR phosphorylation modulates AR transcription factor promoter selectivity and cell growth. DSIF and NELF phosphorylation promotes transcription by inhibiting their negative effect. The phosphorylation of MYOD1 enhances its transcriptional activity and thus promotes muscle differentiation. (data source: UniProt  )
Subunit structure
Associates with CCNT1/cyclin-T1, CCNT2/cyclin-T2 (isoform A and isoform B) or CCNK/cyclin-K to form active P-TEFb. P-TEFb forms a complex with AFF4/AF5Q31 and is part of the super elongation complex (SEC). Component of a complex which is composed of at least 5 members: HTATSF1/Tat-SF1, P-TEFb complex, RNA pol II, SUPT5H, and NCL/nucleolin. Associates with UBR5 and forms a transcription regulatory complex composed of CDK9, RNAP II, UBR5 and TFIIS/TCEA1 that can stimulate target gene transcription (e.g. gamma fibrinogen/FGG) by recruiting their promoters. Component of the 7SK snRNP inactive complex which is composed of at least 8 members: P-TEFb (composed of CDK9 and CCNT1/cyclin-T1), HEXIM1, HEXIM2, LARP7, BCDIN3, SART3 proteins and 7SK and U6 snRNAs. This inactive 7SK snRNP complex can also interact with NCOR1 and HDAC3, probably to regulate CDK9 acetylation. Release of P-TEFb from P-TEFb/7SK snRNP complex requires both PP2B to transduce calcium Ca(2+) signaling in response to stimuli (e.g. UV or hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)), and PPP1CA to dephosphorylate Thr-186. This released P-TEFb remains inactive in the preinitiation complex with BRD4 until new Thr-186 phosphorylation occurs after the synthesis of a short RNA. Interacts with BRD4, probably to target chromatin binding. Interacts with the acidic/proline-rich region of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Tat via T-loop region, and is thus required for HIV to hijack host transcription machinery during its replication through cooperative binding to viral TAR RNA. Interacts with activated nuclear STAT3 and RELA/p65. Binds to AR and MYOD1. Forms a complex composed of CDK9, CCNT1/cyclin-T1, EP300 and GATA4 that stimulates hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes. Isoform 3 binds to KU70/XRCC6. (data source: UniProt  )
UniProtKB:
Species: 
Gene names: Gene View for CDK9 CDC2L4 TAK
Length:
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Data origin/color codes
The vertical color bar on the left side indicates data provenance.
Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB   and the Protein Model Portal  

The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).