Serine/threonine-protein kinase HipA - P23874 (HIPA_ECOLI)


Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

  • Number of PDB entries for P23874: 13
Toxic component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. Phosphorylates Glu-tRNA-ligase (GltX, on 'Ser-239') in vivo. Phosphorylation of GltX prevents it from being charged, leading to an increase in uncharged tRNA(Glu). This induces amino acid starvation and the stringent response via RelA/SpoT and increased ppGpp levels, which inhibits replication, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis, reducing growth and leading to multidrug resistance and persistence. The hipA7 mutation (a double G22S D291A mutation) leads to increased generation of persister cells, cells that survive antibiotic treatment probably by entering into a dormant state. Wild-type cells produce persisters at a frequency of 10(-6) to 10(-5) whereas mutant hipA7 cells produce persisters at a frequency of 10(-2). Generation of persister cells requires ppGpp as cells lacking relA or relA/spoT generate fewer or no persister cells respectively compared to hipA7. Low level expression of HipA induces dormancy and depending on the protein level, can be toxic enough to reduce cell growth or even kill cells. Low levels of wild-type HipA lead to high beta-lactam antibiotic tolerance of the survivor cells, also dependent on relA and relA/spoT. The toxic effect of HipA is neutralized by its cognate antitoxin HipB. With HipB acts as a corepressor for transcription of the hipBA promoter; binding to DNA induces a 70 degree bend. UniProt
Catalytic Activity
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein. UniProt
Pathway Maps
      ESCHER  BiGG
Subunit Structure
Forms a HipA(2)HipB(2) heterotetramer which can interact with DNA. UniProt
The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more information.
Data origin/color codes
The vertical color bar on the left side indicates data provenance.
Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
Sequence Mismatches It is now possible to see information about expression tags, cloning artifacts, and many other details related to sequence mismatches.
Icons represent a number of different sequence modifications that can be observed in PDB files. For example the 'T' icon T represents expression tags that have been added to the sequence. The 'E' icon E represents an engineered mutation. However, besides these two, there are many other icons. For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence modification, move the cursor over the icon.
Validation Track

For more details on the Validation Track (Structure Summary Page only) see the dedicated help page.

Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB   and the Protein Model Portal  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
Organism icons generated by under CC BY. The authors are: Freepik, Icons8, OCHA, Scott de Jonge.

For more details on the Protein Feature view see the dedicated help page.