Retinoic acid receptor alpha - P10276 (RARA_HUMAN)


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Receptor for retinoic acid (PubMed:19850744, PubMed:16417524, PubMed:20215566). Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes (PubMed:28167758). The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (PubMed:28167758). In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone deacetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression (PubMed:16417524). On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation (PubMed:9267036, PubMed:19850744, PubMed:20215566). Formation of a complex with histone deacetylases might lead to inhibition of RARE DNA element binding and to transcriptional repression (PubMed:28167758). Transcriptional activation and RARE DNA element binding might be supported by the transcription factor KLF2 (PubMed:28167758). RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis (By similarity). Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis (By similarity). In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes (By similarity). In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Together with RXRA, positively regulates microRNA-10a expression, thereby inhibiting the GATA6/VCAM1 signaling response to pulsatile shear stress in vascular endothelial cells (PubMed:28167758). In association with HDAC3, HDAC5 and HDAC7 corepressors, plays a role in the repression of microRNA-10a and thereby promotes the inflammatory response (PubMed:28167758). UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Heterodimer; with RXRA (via C-terminus); association with RXRA is enhanced by pulsatile shear stress (PubMed:28167758, PubMed:10698945, PubMed:10882070, PubMed:20215566, PubMed:15509776). Binds DNA preferentially as a heterodimer (PubMed:10698945, PubMed:28167758). RXRA serves as enhancer to induce RARA binding to RARE (PubMed:30468856). Interacts with RXRG (PubMed:28167758). Interacts with coactivators NCOA3 and NCOA6 (PubMed:9267036, PubMed:10567404). Interacts with NCOA7; the interaction requires ligand-binding (PubMed:11971969). Interacts (via the ligand-binding domain) with PRAME; the interaction is ligand (retinoic acid)-dependent (PubMed:16179254). Interacts with AKT1; the interaction phosphorylates RARA and represses transactivation (PubMed:16417524). Interacts with PRKAR1A; the interaction negatively regulates RARA transcriptional activity (PubMed:20215566). Interacts with NCOR1 and NCOR2 (PubMed:20543827). Interacts with PRMT2 (PubMed:12039952). Interacts with LRIF1 (PubMed:17455211). Interacts with ASXL1 and NCOA1 (PubMed:16606617). Interacts with ACTN4 (PubMed:22351778). In a complex with HDAC3, HDAC5 and HDAC7; the HDACs serve as corepressors of RARA, causing its deacetylation and inhibition of RARE DNA element binding; association with HDAC3, HDAC5 and HDAC7 is increased upon oscillatory shear stress (PubMed:28167758). Interacts with CDK7 (By similarity). In the absence of hormonal ligand, interacts with TACC1 (PubMed:20078863). UniProt
The 9aaTAD motif is a transactivation domain present in a large number of yeast and animal transcription factors. UniProt
  • Isoforms: 3 , currently showing only the 'canonical' sequence.
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