Chemical Component Summary

Name RETINOL
Identifiers (4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
Formula C20 H30 O
Molecular Weight 286.45 g/mol
Type non-polymer
Isomeric SMILES C\C(=C/CO)\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C
InChI InChI=1S/C20H30O/c1-16(8-6-9-17(2)13-15-21)11-12-19-18(3)10-7-14-20(19,4)5/h6,8-9,11-13,21H,7,10,14-15H2,1-5H3/b9-6+,12-11+,16-8+,17-13+
InChI Key FPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 51
Chiral Atom Count 0
Chiral Atoms
Bond Count 51
Aromatic Bond Count 0

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00162   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Vitamin A
Groups
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
Description Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • (2e,4e,6e,8e)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
  • all-trans-retinol
  • all-trans-retinyl alcohol
  • all-trans-vitamin A alcohol
  • Alphalin
Salts Vitamin A palmitate
Brand Names
  • 400 Vitamin A 10000iu
  • A & C Powder
  • A + Zinc
  • A Caps 10000 I.U.
  • A Mulsion 10
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication For the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.
Pharmacology Vitamin A is effective for the treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-trans retinol or retinol. Vitamin A plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of the proper functioning of the immune system.
Mechanism of action Vision:Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-cis-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal functions in the retina in the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. 11-cis-retinal, while attached to opsin in rhodopsin is isomerized to all-trans-retinal by light. This is the event that triggers the nerve impulse to the brain which allows for the perception of light. All-trans-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-trans-retinol. All-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol in the dark, and then oxidized to 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. Night blindness or defective vision at low illumination results from a failure to re-synthesize 11-cis retinal rapidly.
Epithelial differentiation: The role of Vitamin A in epithelial differentiation, as well as in other physiological processes, involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.
Route of administration
  • intramuscular
  • intravenous
  • oral
  • topical
Categories
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin A
  • Anti-Acne Preparations
  • Vitamins (Fat Soluble)
ATC-Code
  • D10AD02
  • R01AX02
  • S01XA02
AHFS-Code 88:04.00
CAS number 68-26-8

Drug Targets

Name Sequence Search Pharmacological Action Actions
Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 MHKAGLLGLCARAWNSVRMASSGMTRRDPLANKVALVTASTDGIGFAIAR... unknown
Retinol-binding protein 3 MMREWVLLMSVLLCGLAGPTHLFQPSLVLDMAKVLLDNYCFPENLLGMQE... unknown
Retinol-binding protein 1 MPVDFTGYWKMLVNENFEEYLRALDVNVALRKIANLLKPDKEIVQDGDHM... unknown
Retinal dehydrogenase 2 MTSSKIEMPGEVKADPAALMASLHLLPSPTPNLEIKYTKIFINNEWQNSE... unknown
Retinal dehydrogenase 1 MSSSGTPDLPVLLTDLKIQYTKIFINNEWHDSVSGKKFPVFNPATEEELC... unknown
View More Drug Targets
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682