GLN

GLUTAMINE

GLN is found in 115311 entries

GLN in polymers: 115267 entries. Examples include: 101M, 102L, 102M

GLN as free ligands, exist in 44 entries. Examples include 1C3O, 1CT9, 1JDB

Find related ligands: Stereoisomers Similar ligands Chemical Structure Search

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Chemical Component Summary

Name GLUTAMINE
Identifiers L-glutamine
(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxo-pentanoic acid
Formula C5 H10 N2 O3
Molecular Weight 146.14 g/mol
Type L-peptide linking
Isomeric SMILES N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(O)=O
InChI InChI=1S/C5H10N2O3/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H2,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI Key ZDXPYRJPNDTMRX-VKHMYHEASA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 20
Chiral Atom Count 1
Chiral Atoms CA
Bond Count 19
Aromatic Bond Count 0
Leaving Atoms OXT H2 HXT

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00130   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name L-Glutamine
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
  • nutraceutical
Description A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from glutamic acid and ammonia. It is the principal carrier of nitrogen in the body and is an important energy source for many cells. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
  • (2S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
  • (S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
  • Glutamic acid 5-amide
  • Glutamic acid amide
  • GLUTAMINE
  • L-(+)-glutamine
  • L-2-aminoglutaramic acid
  • L-Glutamic acid gamma-amide
  • L-glutamic acid γ-amide
  • L-Glutamin
  • L-Glutamine
  • L-Glutaminsaeure-5-amid
  • L-Glutaminsäure-5-amid
  • Levoglutamide
  • Q
[more]
Brand Names
  • Nutrestore
  • Earthlink Science Glutamine Chews Chocolate
  • Glutamine Express
  • Glutamine Fuel Mega
  • Glutamine Fuel Powder
  • L-Glutamine Power
[more]
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication Used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
Pharmacology Like other amino acids, glutamine is biochemically important as a constituent of proteins. Glutamine is also crucial in nitrogen metabolism. Ammonia (formed by nitrogen fixation) is assimilated into organic compounds by converting glutamic acid to glutamine. The enzyme which accomplishes this is called glutamine synthetase. Glutamine can then be used as a nitrogen donor in the biosynthesis of many compounds, including other amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines.
Mechanism of action Supplemental L-glutamine's possible immunomodulatory role may be accounted for in a number of ways. L-glutamine appears to play a major role in protecting the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract and, in particular, the large intestine. During catabolic states, the integrity of the intestinal mucosa may be compromised with consequent increased intestinal permeability and translocation of Gram-negative bacteria from the large intestine into the body. The demand for L-glutamine by the intestine, as well as by cells such as lymphocytes, appears to be much greater than that supplied by skeletal muscle, the major storage tissue for L-glutamine. L-glutamine is the preferred respiratory fuel for enterocytes, colonocytes and lymphocytes. Therefore, supplying supplemental L-glutamine under these conditions may do a number of things. For one, it may reverse the catabolic state by sparing skeletal muscle L-glutamine. It also may inhibit translocation of Gram-negative bacteria from the large intestine. L-glutamine helps maintain secretory IgA, which functions primarily by preventing the attachment of bacteria to mucosal cells. L-glutamine appears to be required to support the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, as well as the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). It is also required for the maintenance of lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK). L-glutamine can enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. It can lead to an increased synthesis of glutathione in the intestine, which may also play a role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa by ameliorating oxidative stress. The exact mechanism of the possible immunomodulatory action of supplemental L-glutamine, however, remains unclear. It is conceivable that the major effect of L-glutamine occurs at the level of the intestine. Perhaps enteral L-glutamine acts directly on intestine-associated lymphoid tissue and stimulates overall immune function by that mechanism, without passing beyond the splanchnic bed.
Route of administration oral
Categories
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Micronutrients
  • Supplements
  • Non-Essential Amino Acids
ATC-Code A16AA03
CAS number 56-85-9
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682