An Information Portal to 111749 Biological Macromolecular Structures

CHT is found in 30 entries
  •   Chemical Component Summary   Hide
    Identifiers 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium
    Formula C5 H14 N O
    Molecular Weight 104.17 g/mol
    Type non-polymer
    Isomeric SMILES
  •   Drug Info: DrugBank Hide
    DrugBank ID DB00122   (Stereoisomeric match)
    Name Choline
    • approved
    • nutraceutical
    Description A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. [PubChem]
    • Bilineurine
    • Choline
    • Choline ion
    • N-trimethylethanolamine
    • N,N,N-trimethylethanol-ammonium
    • trimethylethanolamine
    Brand names
    Affected organism Humans and other mammals
    Indication For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
    Pharmacology This compound is needed for good nerve conduction throughout the CNS (central nervous system) as it is a precursor to acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is also needed for gallbladder regulation, liver function and lecithin (a key lipid) formation. Choline also aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism and prevents excessive fat build up in the liver. Choline has been used to mitigate the effects of Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Choline deficiencies may result in excessive build-up of fat in the liver, high blood pressure, gastric ulcers, kidney and liver dysfunction and stunted growth.
    Mechanism of action Choline is a major part of the polar head group of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine's role in the maintenance of cell membrane integrity is vital to all of the basic biological processes: information flow, intracellular communication and bioenergetics. Inadequate choline intake would negatively affect all these processes. Choline is also a major part of another membrane phospholipid, sphingomyelin, also important for the maintenance of cell structure and function. It is noteworthy and not surprising that choline deficiency in cell culture causes apoptosis or programmed cell death. This appears to be due to abnormalities in cell membrane phosphatidylcholine content and an increase in ceramide, a precursor, as well as a metabolite, of sphingomyelin. Ceramide accumulation, which is caused by choline deficiency, appears to activate Caspase, a type of enzyme that mediates apoptosis. Betaine or trimethylglycine is derived from choline via an oxidation reaction. Betaine is one of the factors that maintains low levels of homocysteine by resynthesizing L-methionine from homocysteine. Elevated homocysteine levels are a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis, as well as other cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Acetylcholine is one of the major neurotransmitters and requires choline for its synthesis. Adequate acetylcholine levels in the brain are believed to be protective against certain types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease.
    • Lipotropic Agents
    • Nootropic Agents
    • Dietary Supplements
    • Micronutrients
    • Supplements
    • 56:24.00
    • 88:08.00
    • 88:30.00*
    CAS number 62-49-7
    Name Sequence search Pharmacological action Actions
    Acetylcholinesterase   Search  unknown product of
    Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B   Search  unknown product of
    Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A   Search  unknown product of
    Phospholipase D2   Search  unknown product of
    Cholinesterase   Search  unknown product of
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