Chemical Component Summary

Name L-EPINEPHRINE
Identifiers 4-[(1R)-2-(methylamino)-1-oxidanyl-ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol
Synonyms ADRENALINE
Formula C9 H13 N O3
Molecular Weight 183.20 g/mol
Type non-polymer
Isomeric SMILES CNC[C@H](O)c1ccc(O)c(O)c1
InChI InChI=1S/C9H13NO3/c1-10-5-9(13)6-2-3-7(11)8(12)4-6/h2-4,9-13H,5H2,1H3/t9-/m0/s1
InChI Key UCTWMZQNUQWSLP-VIFPVBQESA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 26
Chiral Atom Count 1
Chiral Atoms C7
Bond Count 26
Aromatic Bond Count 6

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00668   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Epinephrine
Groups approved
Description The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • (-)-(R)-Epinephrine
  • (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol
  • (-)-Adrenaline
  • (−)-adrenaline
  • (R)-(-)-Adnephrine
  • (R)-(-)-Adrenaline
  • (R)-(-)-Epinephrine
  • (R)-(-)-Epirenamine
  • (R)-(−)-adrenaline
  • 4-[(1R)-1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-benzenediol
  • Adrenalin
  • Adrenaline
  • Epinefrin
  • Epinefrina
  • Epinephrin
  • Epinephrine
  • Epinephrinum
  • Epipen
  • Epipen jr
  • L-Adrenaline
  • levoepinephrine
  • Primatene
[more]
Salts
  • Epinephrine bitartrate
  • Epinephrine chloride
  • Epinephrine hydrochloride
Brand Names
  • 2% Lidocaine and Epinephrine 1:100,000 Injection USP
  • 4% Astracaine Dental With Epinephrine 1:200,000 (0.005mg/ml)
  • 4% Astracaine Dental With Epinephrine Forte 1:100,000 (0.01mg/ml)
  • 4% Citanest Forte Dental With Epinephrine 1:200,000
  • Adrenaclick
  • Adrenaclick 0.15mg Auto-injector
  • Adrenaclick 0.30mg Auto-injector
  • Adrenalin
  • Adrenalin Chloride Sol 1:1000
  • Adrenalin Chloride Sol 1:1000 Amp
  • Allerject
  • Ana-kit (2mg/tab Orl, 1mg/ml Liq Sc Im)
  • Anakit Insect Sting Treatment Kit
  • Anapen
  • Anapen Junior
  • Articadent
  • Articaine
  • Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine
  • Auvi-Q
  • Bronkaid Mistometer Aem 0.5%
  • Bupivacaine HCl 0.5% and Epinephrine 1:200,000 Injection
  • Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine
  • Citanest Forte
  • Dentsply 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine 1:100,000
  • Dentsply 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine 1:50,000
  • Dentsply 4% Prilocaine and Epinephrine Injection 1:200,000
  • E-pilo 1 Ophthalmic Solution
  • E-pilo 2 Ophthalmic Solution
  • E-pilo 4 Ophthalmic Solution
  • E-pilo 6 Ophthalmic Solution
  • E-pilo-1 Oph Soln
  • E-pilo-2 Oph Soln
  • E-pilo-4 Oph Soln
  • E-pilo-6 Oph Soln
  • Ephinephrine
  • Epi E-Z Pen - Liquid - 0.3mg/0.3ml
  • Epinephrine
  • Epinephrine 1:1000 Inj 1mg/ml USP
  • Epinephrine Inj 0.1mg/ml USP
  • Epinephrine Inj 1mg/ml USP
  • Epinephrine Injection
  • Epinephrine Injection USP
  • Epinephrine Injection USP 1 mg/ml
  • Epipen
  • Epipen Jr
  • Episnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit
  • Karticaine
  • Karticaine Forte
  • Lidocaine
  • Lidocaine 2% and Epinephrine 1:100 000
  • Lidocaine 2% and Epinephrine 1:100,000
  • Lidocaine 2% and Epinephrine 1:100,000 Injection
  • Lidocaine 2% and Epinephrine 1:50 000
  • Lidocaine 2% and Epinephrine 1:50,000
  • Lidocaine HCl
  • Lidocaine Hydrochloride 0.5% and Epinephrine 1:200000 Injection USP
  • Lidocaine Hydrochloride 1% and Epinephrine 1:100 000 Injection USP
  • Lidocaine Hydrochloride 1.5% and Epinephrine 1:200000 Injection USP
  • Lidocaine Hydrochloride 1.5% and Epinephrine 1:200000 Injection USP Test Dose
  • Lidocaine Hydrochloride 2% and Epinephrine 1:200000 Injection USP
  • Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine
  • Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Bitartrate
  • Lidocaine and Epinephrine Inj.usp 2% 1:100000
  • Lignospan Forte
  • Lignospan Speciale Inj
  • Lignospan Standard
  • Marcaine
  • Marcaine 0.5% and Epinephrine 1:200,000 Liq
  • Marcaine E 0.25% Liq Prt
  • Marcaine E 2.5 mg/ml
  • Marcaine E 5.0 mg/ml
  • Marcaine E Liq Prt 0.50%
  • Marcaine With Epinephrine
  • Numquick Analgesic
  • Numquick Topical Analgesic
  • Octocaine 100
  • Octocaine 100 Needleject Inj
  • Octocaine 50
  • Octocaine HCl 2% Epinephrine 1:100000
  • Octocaine HCl 2% Epinephrine 1:50000
  • Orabloc
  • Orabloc 1:100,000
  • Orabloc 1:200,000
  • Posicaine N
  • Posicaine Sp
  • Prilocaine HCl 4% Epineph 1:200000inj
  • Prilocaine Hydrochloride With Epinephrine
  • Prime Asthma Relief
  • Scandonest 2% Special Inj
  • Sensorcaine
  • Sensorcaine 0.25% With Epinephrine
  • Sensorcaine 0.5% With Epinephrine
  • Sensorcaine Forte
  • Sensorcaine Mpf
  • Septanest N
  • Septanest Sp
  • Septocaine and Epinephrine
  • Sulpak R34/r35/r36
  • Taro-epinephrine Auto-injector
  • Twinject 0.15mg Auto-injector
  • Twinject 0.3mg Auto-injector
  • Ultracaine D-S Forte Injection
  • Ultracaine D-S Injection
  • Ultracaine DS Forte Inj
  • Ultracaine DS Inj
  • Vivacaine
  • Vivacaine (bupivacaine HCl 0.5% & Epinephrine 1:200,000 Inj, USP)
  • Xylocaine
  • Xylocaine 0.5% W Epinephrine 1:100000
  • Xylocaine 0.5% W Epinephrine 1:200000
  • Xylocaine 1% W Epinephrine 1:100000
  • Xylocaine 1% W Epinephrine 1:200000
  • Xylocaine 1.5% W Epinephrine 1:200000
  • Xylocaine 1.5% W Epinephrine 1:200000 Test Dose
  • Xylocaine 2% W Epinephrine 1:100000
  • Xylocaine 2% W Epinephrine 1:200000
  • Xylocaine Dental Lidocaine HCl 2% and Epinephrine 1:100,000
  • Xylocaine Dental Lidocaine Hydrochloride 2% and Epinephrine 1:50,000
  • Xylocaine Mpf
  • Xylocaine Mpf 1.5% With Epinephrine
  • Zorcaine
  • Epi EZ Pen JR
  • Medihaler-Epi
  • Twinject
[more]
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication Used to treat anaphylaxis and sepsis. Also one of the body's main adrenergic neurotransmitters.
Pharmacology Epinephrine is indicated for intravenous injection in treatment of acute hypersensitivity, treatment of acute asthmatic attacks to relieve bronchospasm, and treatment and prophylaxis of cardiac arrest and attacks of transitory atrioventricular heart block with syncopal seizures (Stokes-Adams Syndrome). The actions of epinephrine resemble the effects of stimulation of adrenergic nerves. To a variable degree it acts on both alpha and beta receptor sites of sympathetic effector cells. Its most prominent actions are on the beta receptors of the heart, vascular and other smooth muscle. When given by rapid intravenous injection, it produces a rapid rise in blood pressure, mainly systolic, by (1) direct stimulation of cardiac muscle which increases the strength of ventricular contraction, (2) increasing the heart rate and (3) constriction of the arterioles in the skin, mucosa and splanchnic areas of the circulation. When given by slow intravenous injection, epinephrine usually produces only a moderate rise in systolic and a fall in diastolic pressure. Although some increase in pulse pressure occurs, there is usually no great elevation in mean blood pressure. Accordingly, the compensatory reflex mechanisms that come into play with a pronounced increase in blood pressure do not antagonize the direct cardiac actions of epinephrine as much as with catecholamines that have a predominant action on alpha receptors.
Mechanism of action Epinephrine works via the stimulation of alpha and beta-1 adrenergic receptors, and a moderate activity at beta-2 adrenergic receptors.
Route of administration
  • block/infiltration
  • block/infiltration; epidural
  • dental
  • dental; infiltration
  • dental; subcutaneous
  • endotracheal; intracardiac; intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous
  • endotracheal; intracardiac; intravenous
  • epidural
  • epidural; infiltration
  • epidural; infiltration; intracaudal
  • epidural; infiltration; intracaudal; perineural
  • epidural; intracaudal
  • epidural; intracaudal; perineural
  • epidural; retrobulbar
  • infiltration
  • infiltration; perineural
  • inhalation
  • intracardiac; intramuscular; intratracheal; intravenous; subcutaneous
  • intracardiac; intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous
  • intracardiac; intravenous
  • intramuscular
  • intramuscular; intraocular; subcutaneous
  • intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous
  • intramuscular; oral; subcutaneous
  • intramuscular; subcutaneous
  • intravenous
  • nasal
  • ophthalmic
  • oral; parenteral (unspecified)
  • parenteral
  • perineural
  • respiratory (inhalation)
  • subcutaneous
  • submucosal
  • topical
[more]
Categories
  • Vasoconstrictor Agents
  • Sympathomimetics
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
  • Mydriatics
  • Adrenergic beta-Agonists
[more]
ATC-Code
  • S01EA01
  • A01AD01
  • B02BC09
  • C01CA24
  • R01AA14
  • R03AA01
[more]
AHFS-Code
  • 12:12.12
  • 52:24.00
  • 52:32.00
  • 92:02.00*
CAS number 51-43-4

Drug Targets

Name Sequence Search Pharmacological Action Actions
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor MGAGVLVLGASEPGNLSSAAPLPDGAATAARLLVPASPPASLLPPASESP... yes agonist
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor MGAGVLVLGASEPGNLSSAAPLPDGAATAARLLVPASPPASLLPPASESP... yes agonist
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor MGSLQPDAGNASWNGTEAPGGGARATPYSLQVTLTLVCLAGLLMLLTVFG... yes agonist
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor MGSLQPDAGNASWNGTEAPGGGARATPYSLQVTLTLVCLAGLLMLLTVFG... yes agonist
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor MGSLQPDAGNASWNGTEAPGGGARATPYSLQVTLTLVCLAGLLMLLTVFG... yes agonist
View More Drug Targets
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682