POP-OUT | CLOSE

An Information Portal to 105097 Biological Macromolecular Structures

 
AGMATINE
 
AG2 is found in 9 entries
AG2
  •   Chemical Component Summary   Hide
    Name AGMATINE
    Identifiers 1-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine
    Synonyms (4-AMINOBUTYL)GUANIDINE
    Formula C5 H14 N4
    Molecular Weight 130.19 g/mol
    Type non-polymer
    Isomeric SMILES
    InChI
    InChI key QYPPJABKJHAVHS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
     
  •   Drug Info: DrugBank Hide
    DrugBank ID DB08838   (Stereoisomeric match)
    Name Agmatine
    Groups
    • experimental
    • investigational
    Description Agmantine is a natural metabolite of the amino acid arginine. It is formed when arginine is decarboxylated by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase and is found naturally in ragweed pollen, ergot fungi, octopus muscle, herring sperm, sponges, and the mammalian brain. Agmatine is both an experimental and investigational drug. As an investigational drug, it is being studied in a non-blinded prospective case study in the United States looking at patients who have been diagnosed with small fiber peripheral neuropathy between the ages of 18 to 75 years. Up to now (July 2013), the results of this study have not yet been published. As an experimental drug, agmatine is being studied for several indications such as cardioprotection, diabetes, decreased kidney function, neuroprotection (stroke, severe CNS injuries, epilepsy, glaucoma, and neuropathic pain), and psychiatric conditions (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and cognition). The exact mechanism of action is still being investigated for all of the potential indications of agmatine.
    Synonyms (4-aminobutyl) guanidine
    Salts Agmatine sulfate
    Affected organism Humans and other mammals
    Indication Agmatine is being studied experimentally for several indications such as cardioprotection, diabetes, decreased kidney function, neuroprotection (stroke, severe CNS injuries, epilepsy, glaucoma, and neuropathic pain), and psychiatric conditions (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and cognition). As an investigational drug, agamatine is being studied in a non-blinded prospective case study in the United States looking at patients who have been diagnosed with small fiber peripheral neuropathy.
    Pharmacology Agmatine has several physiological effects. Its cardiovascular effects include mildly reducing heart rate and blood pressure. Also it promotes a mild hypoglycemic state, reduces cellular oxidative stress, and enhances glomerular filtration rate.
    Mechanism of action The exact mechanism of action is still being investigated for all of the potential indications of agmatine. Some of the biochemical mechanisms discovered so far concern agmatine's indication for diabetes, neuroprotection, and psychiatric conditions. In diabetes, agmatine produces hypoglycemia by increasing the release of insulin form pancreatic islet cells and increasing glucose uptake by the cells through increased endorphin release from the adrenal glands. Concerning neuroprotection, agmatine's effects are thought to involve modulation of receptors (NMDA, alpha 2, and imidazoline) and ion channels (ATP sensitive potassium channels and voltage-gated calcium channels) as well as blocking nitric oxide synthesis. Agmatine blocks nitric oxide synthesis by reducing the nitric oxide synthase -2 (NOS-2) protein in astroglial cells and macrophages. With respect to agmatine's benefit in psychiatric disorders, it is suggested that the mechanism involves neurotransmitter receptor modulation of the NMDA, alpha-2, serotonin, opioid, and imidazoline receptors. Specifically when agmatine binds to the imidazoline and alpha 2 receptors, it acts as a neurotransmitter and releases catecholamines from the adrenal gland.
    CAS number 306-60-5
    Targets
    Name Sequence search Pharmacological action Actions
    Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor   Search  yes agonist
    Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor   Search  yes agonist
    Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor   Search  yes agonist
    Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1   Search  yes antagonist
    Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1   Search  yes antagonist
    [more]
     
Ligand Image