Chemical Component Summary

Name RETINOL
Identifiers (4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
Formula C20 H30 O
Molecular Weight 286.45 g/mol
Type non-polymer
Isomeric SMILES C\C(=C/CO)\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C
InChI InChI=1S/C20H30O/c1-16(8-6-9-17(2)13-15-21)11-12-19-18(3)10-7-14-20(19,4)5/h6,8-9,11-13,21H,7,10,14-15H2,1-5H3/b9-6+,12-11+,16-8+,17-13+
InChI Key FPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 51
Chiral Atom Count 0
Chiral Atoms
Bond Count 51
Aromatic Bond Count 0

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00162   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Vitamin A
Groups
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
Description Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • (2e,4e,6e,8e)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
  • all-trans-retinol
  • all-trans-retinyl alcohol
  • all-trans-vitamin A alcohol
  • Alphalin
  • Chocola a
  • Retinol
  • Vitamin a
  • Vitamin A1
[more]
Salts Vitamin A palmitate
Brand Names
  • 400 Vitamin A 10000iu
  • A & C Powder
  • A + Zinc
  • A Caps 10000 I.U.
  • A Mulsion 10
  • A-F Betafood Tab
  • Acti-A D E Liq
  • Acti-halibut Cap
  • Aquasol A
  • Aquasol A & D Drops
  • Aquasol A Cap 25000unit
  • Aquasol A Cap 50000unit
  • Arovit Vitamine A Tab 10000unit
  • Bear Essentials
  • Beta Carotene
  • Budpak Vitamin A and D
  • C 106 Tab
  • Calcium-iron-magnesium With A,d,c Tab
  • Cataplex A Tab 1500unit
  • Cataplex A-C Tab
  • Cataplex A-C-P Tab
  • Centrum Junior (chewable)
  • Centrum Junior Regular (chewable Tablets)
  • Chewable Children's Complete Multivitamins With Essential Minerals
  • Chewable Multivitamins
  • Chewable Multivitamins Plus Iron
  • Chewable Multivitamins With Extra C
  • Children Choice Multivit Chewable Tab
  • Children Pediatric Vitamins Drops
  • Children Vitamin Drops
  • Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin
  • Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With Minerals
  • Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins
  • Children's Chewable Multivitamins With Minerals
  • Children's Vitamins Chewable
  • Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins Tab
  • Cod Liver Oil Oleovitamin A & D Caps 20min
  • Cod Liver Oil USP
  • Congaplex Cap
  • Dry Super Vitamin A Plus D - Cap
  • E.V.C. Vitamins Tab
  • Fem - Control
  • For Kids Only Chewable Multivitamins
  • Formula 7115 Tab 700unit
  • Formula L.G.I.
  • Formula R Tab
  • Formule 7561 Caps
  • Infants' Vitamin Drops
  • Junior Multi Vitamins - Regular
  • Kanga-kid Multi-vitamin & Mineral
  • Kid's Choice Children's Chewable Vitamins - Tab
  • Kidmag Vitamins W Magnesium Tab
  • Kids Stuff Tablets
  • Kids Stuff With Iron Tablets
  • Kimchi Vitamin Chewable Multivitamin
  • Mag-A-folic Tab
  • Maxi 6 Liq
  • Multi
  • 2
  • Multi Vitamin & Minerals
  • Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride
  • Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride With Iron
  • Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride and Iron
  • Multi Vitamin Plus Iron
  • Multi Vitamin and Fluoride
  • Multi Vitamin, Iron and Fluoride
  • Multi-vitamin
  • Multi-vitamin Fluoride
  • Multi-vitamin Fluoride Drops
  • Multi-vitamin Fluoride and Iron Drops
  • Multi-vitamin With Fluoride
  • Multi-vitamins
  • Multi-vitamins for Infusion Liq
  • Multiple Vitamins
  • Multivitamin
  • Multivitamines Plus C Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)
  • Multivitamines Plus Fer Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)
  • Multivitamines Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)
  • Multivitamins for Children
  • Mvc
  • Mvc-fluoride
  • Nata Komplete
  • Natural Source Vitamin A and D Cap
  • Neo-vites & Minerals Tab
  • Nutrol A
  • O-cal Prenatal Vitamin
  • Omega Source Vitamin & Caps 5000iu
  • Prenatal Mega Antioxidant
  • Prenatal Vitamins Plus
  • Prevital Tab
  • Pro-sol A Liq 5000unit/min
  • Reaphirm Plant Source DHA
  • Renadyn Tab
  • Shen Min Vitamin Supplement
  • Strovite Forte Caplet
  • Strovite One Caplets
  • Super A 40
  • Sveets
  • T.A. Vit A & D Ointment
  • Tender Age Multi Vitamins
  • Theraplex Acp
  • Thymunase Tab
  • Tozal
  • Tri-VI-sol Drops
  • Tri-vit With Fluoride Drops
  • Tri-vit With Fluoride and Iron Drops
  • Tri-vitamin With Fluoride
  • Triple Vitamin Drops With Fluoride
  • Triple-vitamin Drops With Fluoride
  • Vit A Cap 10000unit Natural Source USP
  • Vitafol Caplet
  • Vitafol Ob Caplet
  • Vitafol One
  • Vitafol Plus
  • Vitamin A 10000 I.U. Capsules
  • Vitamin A 5000 I.U. Dietary Supplement
  • Vitamin A Cap 10000iu
  • Vitamin A Cap 10000iu Natural Source
  • Vitamin A Cap 10000unit
  • Vitamin A Cap 10000unit Naturelle
  • Vitamin A Cap 25000iu
  • Vitamin A Cap 50000iu
  • Vitamin A Tab 10000unit
  • Vitamin A Tab 2000unit Chewable
  • Vitamine A 10000 U.I.
  • Vitamine A 10000 U.I.-cap
  • Vitamine A 10000ui Capsule
  • Vitamine A Cap USP 10000ui
  • Vitamines A - D Calcium
  • Vitamines Pour Bebes Et Enfants
  • Vitamins A Plus D Capsules
  • Vitamins A, C, D and Fluoride
  • Zinc 50mg Plus Copper & Vit A Tab
  • Zinc Amino Acid Chelate Tab
  • Alphalin
  • Chocola A
[more]
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication For the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.
Pharmacology Vitamin A is effective for the treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-trans retinol or retinol. Vitamin A plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of the proper functioning of the immune system.
Mechanism of action Vision:Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-cis-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal functions in the retina in the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. 11-cis-retinal, while attached to opsin in rhodopsin is isomerized to all-trans-retinal by light. This is the event that triggers the nerve impulse to the brain which allows for the perception of light. All-trans-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-trans-retinol. All-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol in the dark, and then oxidized to 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. Night blindness or defective vision at low illumination results from a failure to re-synthesize 11-cis retinal rapidly.
Epithelial differentiation: The role of Vitamin A in epithelial differentiation, as well as in other physiological processes, involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.
Route of administration
  • intramuscular
  • intravenous
  • oral
  • topical
Categories
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin A
  • Anti-Acne Preparations
  • Vitamins (Fat Soluble)
ATC-Code
  • D10AD02
  • R01AX02
  • S01XA02
AHFS-Code 88:04.00
CAS number 68-26-8

Drug Targets

Name Sequence Search Pharmacological Action Actions
Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 MHKAGLLGLCARAWNSVRMASSGMTRRDPLANKVALVTASTDGIGFAIAR... unknown
Retinol-binding protein 3 MMREWVLLMSVLLCGLAGPTHLFQPSLVLDMAKVLLDNYCFPENLLGMQE... unknown
Retinol-binding protein 1 MPVDFTGYWKMLVNENFEEYLRALDVNVALRKIANLLKPDKEIVQDGDHM... unknown
Retinal dehydrogenase 2 MTSSKIEMPGEVKADPAALMASLHLLPSPTPNLEIKYTKIFINNEWQNSE... unknown
Retinal dehydrogenase 1 MSSSGTPDLPVLLTDLKIQYTKIFINNEWHDSVSGKKFPVFNPATEEELC... unknown
View More Drug Targets
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682