Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
(2S)-2-azanyl-5-[[(2R)-1-(2-hydroxy-2-oxoethylamino)-1-oxidanylidene-3-sulfanyl-propan-2-yl]amino]-5-oxidanylidene-pentanoic acid
Formula C10 H17 N3 O6 S
Molecular Weight 307.32 g/mol
Type non-polymer
Isomeric SMILES N[C@@H](CCC(=O)N[C@@H](CS)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI InChI=1S/C10H17N3O6S/c11-5(10(18)19)1-2-7(14)13-6(4-20)9(17)12-3-8(15)16/h5-6,20H,1-4,11H2,(H,12,17)(H,13,14)(H,15,16)(H,18,19)/t5-,6-/m0/s1

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 37
Chiral Atom Count 2
Chiral Atoms CA1 CA2
Bond Count 36
Aromatic Bond Count 0
Leaving Atoms HSG

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00143   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Glutathione
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
Description A tripeptide with many roles in cells.  It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides. [PubChem]
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
  • gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine
  • Glutathione
  • Glutathione-SH
  • GSH
Salts Glutathione disulfide
Brand Names
  • Bss Plus
  • Isethion
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
Mechanism of action Glutathione (GSH) participates in leukotriene synthesis and is a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is also important as a hydrophilic molecule that is added to lipophilic toxins and waste in the liver during biotransformation before they can become part of the bile. Glutathione is also needed for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a toxin produced as a by-product of metabolism. This detoxification reaction is carried out by the glyoxalase system. Glyoxalase I catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione to S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione. Glyoxalase II catalyzes the conversion of S-D-Lactoyl Glutathione to Reduced Glutathione and D-lactate. GSH is known as a cofactor in both conjugation reactions and reduction reactions, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes in cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. However, it is capable of participating in non-enzymatic conjugation with some chemicals, as it is hypothesized to do to a significant extent with n-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450 reactive metabolite formed by toxic overdose of acetaminophen. Glutathione in this capacity binds to NAPQI as a suicide substrate and in the process detoxifies it, taking the place of cellular protein sulfhydryl groups which would otherwise be toxically adducted. The preferred medical treatment to an overdose of this nature, whose efficacy has been consistently supported in literature, is the administration (usually in atomized form) of N-acetylcysteine, which is used by cells to replace spent GSSG and allow a usable GSH pool.
  • Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
  • Antidotes
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Glutathione
  • Oligopeptides
ATC-Code V03AB32
CAS number 70-18-8
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682