Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers 2-aminoethanoic acid
Formula C2 H5 N O2
Molecular Weight 75.07 g/mol
Type peptide linking
Isomeric SMILES NCC(O)=O
InChI InChI=1S/C2H5NO2/c3-1-2(4)5/h1,3H2,(H,4,5)

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 10
Chiral Atom Count 0
Chiral Atoms
Bond Count 9
Aromatic Bond Count 0
Leaving Atoms OXT H2 HXT

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00145   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Glycine
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
  • vet_approved
Description A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. [PubChem]
  • Aminoacetic acid
  • Aminoessigsaeure
  • Aminoethanoic acid
  • G
  • Gly
Brand Names
  • Aminoderm Poudre
  • Aminosyn
  • Aminosyn 10%
  • Aminosyn 10% W Electrolytes
  • Aminosyn 3.5% M
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication Supplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Pharmacology Helps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.
Mechanism of action In the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous
  • Irrigation
  • Oral
  • Topical
  • Amino Acids
  • Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
  • Blood and Blood Forming Organs
  • Blood Substitutes and Perfusion Solutions
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
ATC-Code B05CX03
AHFS-Code 40:36.00
CAS number 56-40-6

Drug Targets

Name Sequence Search Pharmacological Action Actions
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial MTLIWRHLLRPLCLVTSAPRILEMHPFLSLGTSRTSVTKLSLHTKPRMPP... unknown
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial MLYFSLFWAARPLQRCGQLVRMAIRAQHSNAAQTQTGEANRGWTGQESLS... unknown
View More Drug Targets
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682