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Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?): a review.

(2014) Biochem Pharmacol 92

PubMed: 25083916 | PubMedCentral: PMC4212005 | DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018

The partial PPARγ agonists amorfrutin 1, 2, and B (PDB: 2yfe, PDB: 4a4 v, and PDB: 4a4w, respectively [187,197] ) are localized and oriented almost identically in the PPARγ LBD...

Depicted in Fig. 2 are the binding modes of a selection of ligands co-crystallized with the PPARγ LBD: the full thiazolidinedione agonist rosiglitazone (protein data bank (PDB) [200] entry PDB: 4ema [199] , Fig. 2 B); (9 S ,10 E ,12 Z )-9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (9-( S )-HODE) as a representative endogenous ligand that binds as a homodimer (PDB: 2vsr [43] , Fig. 2 C); the natural product amorfrutin B (PDB: 4a4w [197] , Fig. 2 D); the neolignan magnolol that binds as a homodimer (PDB: 3r5n [193] , Fig. 2 E); and the flavonoid luteolin binding concomitantly with myristic acid (PDB: 3sz1 [195] , Fig. 2 F).

Bioactive compound Notes Flavonoids Binds to purified human PPARγ with IC 50  = 3.9 [127] or 7.2 μM [137] , activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (with EC 50  = 15.6 μM and maximal efficacy around 3-fold lower than rosiglitazone) [195] , and antagonizes the effect of rosiglitazone (1 μM) upon co-treatment (with IC 50  = 21.8 μM) [195] , antagonizes the adipogenesis inducing action of rosiglitazone (1 μM) in 3T3-L1 cells upon co-treatment (at 5–20 μM) [195] , regulates several PPARγ-dependent genes as a weak partial agonist/antagonist, but acts as a full PPARγ agonist on GLUT4 expression in 3T3-L1 cells (at 10–20 μM) [195] , counteracts (at 1–5 μM) the IL-8 secretion in human corneal epithelial cells exposed to hypertonic stress or to the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 (at 1 μM) [195] , was co-crystallized with the PPARγ LBD whereby luteolin and myristic acid simultaneously bind to the LBD (PDB: 3sz1) [195] 

 Binds to recombinant human PPARγ (IC 50 reported to be 26.0 [134] , 5.7 [242] , or 2.8 μM [127] ), activates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist when applied as a single treatment, and antagonizes the effect of rosiglitazone upon co-treatment (at 1–100 μM) [134] , induces the insulin-dependent glucose uptake but not adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells (at 5–50 μM) [134] , inhibits rosiglitazone-induced 3T3-L1 cell differentiation (at 5–50 μM) [134] 

 Binds to recombinant human PPARγ (IC 50  = 23.1 [134] , 30 [242] or 49.9 μM [245] ), activates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist when applied as a single treatment, and antagonizes the effect of rosiglitazone upon co-treatment (at 1–100 μM) [134] , induces the insulin-dependent glucose uptake but not adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells (at 5–50 μM) [134] , inhibits rosiglitazone-induced 3T3-L1 cell differentiation (at 5–50 μM) [134] 

 Binds to purified PPARγ-LBD with IC 50  = 9.9 μM [205] , activates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as full agonist with EC 50 of around 2 μM [205] , modulates expression of PPARγ target genes, and promotes adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells [205] 

 Binds to purified PPARγ (IC 50  = 3.8 μM) and activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (with EC 50  = 3.8 μM and maximal efficacy around 3-fold lower than rosiglitazone) [127,245] 

 Binds to purified human PPARγ with IC 50  = 19.6 [121] or 23.7 μM [137] , activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (with EC 50  = 39.5 μM and maximal efficacy around 3-fold lower than pioglitazone) [121] , induces adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells (at 1-5 μM) [138] , activates PPARγ promoter activity in HUVEC transfected with PPRE-reporter plasmids and inhibits monocyte adhesion to TNF-α activated HUVEC in the presence of flow (at 1 μM) [246] , activates also chimeric Gal4-PPARα-dependent reporter gene expression [138,247] 

 Binds to purified human PPARγ with K i  = 5.7 [135] or 22.5 μM [121] , activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (with EC 50  = 18.7 μM and maximal efficacy around 4-fold lower than pioglitazone) [121] , induces adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells (at 1-30 μM) [138] , activates PPARγ promoter activity in HUVEC transfected with PPRE-reporter plasmids and inhibits monocyte adhesion to TNF-α activated HUVEC in the presence of flow (at 1 μM; the monocyte adhesion effect was abolished upon siRNA silencing of PPARγ) [246] , activates also the transcriptional activity of PPARα [138,247–249] , was shown to act as an estrogen at low concentrations (≤1 μM) and as a ligand of PPARγ at high concentrations (>1 μM) leading to concentration-dependent opposite effects on osteogenesis and adipogenesis [135] 

 Binds to purified human PPARγ with IC 50  = 3.3 μM [121] , activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as full agonist with EC 50  = 48.6 μM [121] 

 Binds to purified human PPARγ with IC 50  = 16.7 μM [121] , activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist with EC 50  = 27.7 μM and maximal efficacy around 5-fold lower than rosiglitazone [121] 

 Neolignans Dual agonist of PPARγ and RXR [175,190–192] , binds to purified human PPARγ ( K i  = 22.9 μM) [175] , activates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (EC 50  = 3.9 μM) [175] , induces glucose uptake but not adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells (at 1–10 μM) [175] , decreases blood glucose levels in diabetic KKAy mice with simultaneous suppression of weight gain [175] 

 Dual agonist of PPARγ and RXRα [140,193,194] , binds to purified human PPARγ ( K i  = 2.0 μM) [140] , activates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (EC 50  = 1.6 μM) [140] , induces the recruitment of TRAP220/DRIP-2 coactivator peptide to purified PPARγ (with EC 50 of around 0.5 μM and maximal efficacy around 3-fold lower than pioglitazone) [140] , induces adipogenesis [140,194] and glucose uptake [194] in 3T3-L1 cells (at 10 μM), decreases fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and prevents or retards diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats [176] , was co-crystallized with the RXRα-LBD (PDB: 3r5 m) and the PPARγ-LBD (PDB: 3r5n) [193] 

 Stilbenes Binds to purified human PPARγ ( K i  = 1.37 μM) [250] , activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (at 50–100 μM) [251] , inhibits rosiglitazone-induced PPARγ luciferase reporter transactivation with IC 50  = 27.4 μM [250] , affects glucose and lipid metabolism as well as inflammation by interference with PPARγ in several in vitro and in vivo animal models [177–185] and improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients [186] , is also a ligand of PPARα [250,252] , was co-crystallized with the PPARγ-LBD (PDB: 4jaz) [250] 

 Binds to purified human PPARγ (IC 50  = 0.85 μM) and activates human PPARγ-dependent luciferase reporter gene expression (EC 50  = 5 μM; maximal fold activation of 83% as compared to the full agonist troglitazone) [234] , binds and activates with a similar potency also PPARα [234] , improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice without significant side effects, such as weight gain or hepatomegaly [189] 

 Amorfrutins Binds to purified PPARγ ( K i  = 0.24 μM) and activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (with EC 50  = 0.46 μM and maximal efficacy 61% lower than rosiglitazone) [187] , selectively modulates PPARγ gene expression networks in human adipocytes with a different pattern in comparison to synthetic PPARγ agonists [187] , improves insulin resistance and other metabolic and inflammatory parameters without concomitant increase of fat storage or other unwanted side effects such as hepatotoxicity in diet-induced obese and db/db mice [187] , blocks PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation in DIO mice [187] , was co-crystallized with the PPARγ-LBD (PDB: 2yfe) [187] 

 Binds to purified PPARγ ( K i  = 0.29 μM), and activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (with EC 50  = 1.2 μM and maximal efficacy 70% lower than rosiglitazone) [187] , selectively modulates PPARγ gene expression networks in human adipocytes with a different pattern in comparison to synthetic PPARγ agonists [187] , was co-crystallized with the PPARγ-LBD (PDB: 4a4v) [197] 

 Binds to purified PPARγ ( K i  = 0.019 μM) and activates chimeric Gal4-PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (with EC 50  = 0.073 μM and maximal efficacy 4-fold lower than rosiglitazone) [188] , induces partial recruitment of several PPARγ transcriptional coactivators [188] , regulates gene expression in human adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner [188] , in insulin-resistant mice, it shows liver-protecting properties and improves insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and blood lipid variables, without weight gain or adverse effects on osteoblastogenesis and fluid retention [188] , was co-crystallized with the PPARγ-LBD (PDB: 4a4w) [197] 

 Polyacetylenes Binds to purified human PPARγ ( K i  = 3.1 μM) [228] , activates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as partial agonist (at 1–30 μM), and antagonizes the effect of rosiglitazone upon co-treatment [228] , induces adipogenesis and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at 10 μM [228] 

 Sesquiterpene lactones Binds to purified PPARγ-LBD ( K D  = 3.4 μM) but not to PPARα-LBD or PPARβ/δ-LBD [218] , enhances the transcriptional activity of full-length PPARγ and Gal4-PPARγ-LBD chimera as a partial agonist (at 1–20 μM) [218] , enhances the transcription activity of PPARγ upon co-treatment with non-saturating concentrations of rosiglitazone [218] 

 Diterpenequinone derivatives Binds to purified PPARγ (IC 50  = 0.255 μM) [253] , activates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as a partial agonist (at 1–30 μM) [253] , enhances adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells by increasing the expression of genes critical for adipocyte phenotype (at 10 μM) [253] , activates also PPARα (at 1–30 μM) [253] 

 Binds to purified PPARγ (IC 50  = 0.725 μM) [253] , activates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression as a partial agonist (at 1–30 μM) [253] , enhances adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells by increasing the expression of genes critical for adipocyte phenotype (at 10 μM) [253] , activates also PPARα (at 1–30 μM) [253]

Observed protein-ligand interactions are presented between the human PPARγ LBD and (B) the synthetic agonist rosiglitazone (PDB: 4ema), (C) the endogenous agonist 9-( S )-HODE binding as a homodimer (PDB: 2vsr), the natural ligands (D) amorfrutin B (PDB: 4a4w), (E) magnolol binding as homodimer (PDB: 3r5n), and (F) luteolin binding as a mixed dimer with myristic acid (PDB: 3sz1).

Publication Year: 2014