Primary Citation PubMed: 15374980
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The marine-derived oligosaccharide sulfate (MdOS), a novel multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, combats tumor angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.
(2008) PLoS One 3
PubMed: 19020661 | PubMedCentral: PMC2582481 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003774
The crystal structure of EGFR kinase in complex with lapatinib was retrieved from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank (PDB entry 1XKK).
C, binding mode of MdOS and EGFR kinase (PDB code: 1XKK).
Publication Year: 2008
Disruption of the EGFR E884-R958 ion pair conserved in the human kinome differentially alters signaling and inhibitor sensitivity.
(2009) Oncogene 28
PubMed: 19015641 | PubMedCentral: PMC2633425 | DOI: 10.1038/onc.2008.411
Structural Analysis EGFR crystal structures (PDB accession codes 1M17, 1XKK and 2GS6) ( Stamos et al. , 2002 ; Wood et al. , 2004 ; Zhang et al. , 2006 ) were analyzed using the program O ( Jones et a... . , 1991 ).
(B) EGFR kinase domain crystal structures [PDB accession codes 1M17 ( Stamos et al. , 2002 ) and 1XKK ( Wood et al. , 2004 )] when in complex with erlotinib (blue) and lapatinib (green) are shown.
Finally, we mapped the locations of the L858R and E884K mutations onto the three-dimensional structure of the EGFR kinase domain complexed with erlotinib and with lapatinib [PDB accession codes 1M17 ( Stamos et al. , 2002 ) and 1XKK ( Wood et al. , 2004 )] ( Figure 4B ).
Publication Year: 2009
Prediction of specificity-determining residues for small-molecule kinase inhibitors.
(2008) BMC Bioinformatics 9
PubMed: 19032760 | PubMedCentral: PMC2655090 | DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-491
The 3D structure of p38 (PDB 1A9U , wire rendering with grey carbons) was superposed onto the structure of EGFR (hidden) in complex with GW-572016 (PDB 1XKK , ball and stick rendering with green carbo... s).
Table 1 S-Filter predictions Compound Primary target PDB Predictions FN FP TN TP Total SB-203580 p38 1A9U Leu 104 Thr 106 0 0 14 2 16 PHA-00781089 MK2 2P3G Cys 140 Gly 143 0 1 18 1 20 Roscovitine CDK2 2A4L Val 64 Leu 83 Ala 144 0 2 20 1 23 PP1 SRC/HCK 1QCF Thr 338 Gly 344 0 1 18 1 20 OSI-774 EGFR 1M17 Thr 766 Cys 773 0 1 19 1 21 GW-572016 EGFR 1XKK Cys 775 2 0 23 1 26 Fasudil ROCK1 2ESM Val 137 Met 153 Ala 215 1 2 14 1 17 Predicted specificity determinants are shown for each compound and are either designated as false positives (FP) or true positives (TP).
Hierarchical modeling of activation mechanisms in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains: thermodynamic and mechanistic catalysts of kinase activation by cancer mutations.
(2009) PLoS Comput Biol 5
PubMed: 19714203 | PubMedCentral: PMC2722018 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000487
Materials and Methods Structure Preparation In simulations of the ABL and EGFR kinase domains, we used the following crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB): pdb entry 1IEP (inactive ABL s... ructure), pdb entry 2G1T (Src-like inactive ABL structure), pdb entry 1M52 (active ABL structure), pdb entry 1XKK (Src/Cdk-like inactive EGFR structure), pdb entry 2GS7 (Src/Cdk-like inactive EGFR structure) and pdb entry 2J6M (active EGFR structure).
The crystal structures of EGFR represent the following conformational forms: the Lapatinib-bound, inactive structure (pdb entry 1XKK) (A), the Src/Cdk-like inactive structure (pdb entry 2GS7) (B), and the active structure (pdb entry 2J6M) (C).
Similarly, TMD simulations were carried out for EGFR-WT, EGFR-T790M and EGFR-L858R to model conformational transitions between the Src/Cdk-like inactive form of EGFR (pdb entry 1XKK) and the target active EGFR form (pdb entry 2J6M for EGFR-WT; pdb entry 2JIU for EGFR-T790M; and pdb entry 2ITT for EGFR-L858R).
Similarly, MD simulations of the EGFR kinase domain were initiated for EGFR-WT, EGFR-T790M, EGFR-L858R from the Src/Cdk-like inactive structures (pdb entries 1XKK, 2GS7), and active conformational form (pdb entry 2G6M).
The structure of 1XKK is unresolved for residues 749–754 (activation loop) and residues 867–876 (αC-helix), thus the unresolved parts were modeled using the program MODELLER which is an automated approach to comparative protein structure modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints  ,  .
Co-conserved features associated with cis regulation of ErbB tyrosine kinases.
(2010) PLoS One 5
PubMed: 21179209 | PubMedCentral: PMC3001462 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014310
A) Superposition of the C-terminal tail in the active (PDB: 2JIU), inactive monomer (PDB: 1XKK) and inactive dimer (PDB: 3GT8).
Three functional states of EGFR are used (active dimer based upon PDB: 3GOP), inactive dimer (based upon PDB: 3GT8) and inactive monomer (based upon PDB: 1XKK) to illustrate the coordinated functions of the identified residues in kinase activation.
The AST is typically disordered in most ErbB structures; however, in two structures of EGFR (PDB:1XKK and 2JIU)  ,  , the AST segment adopts two distinct conformations.
Publication Year: 2010
The structural impact of cancer-associated missense mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressors.
(2011) Mol Cancer 10
PubMed: 21575214 | PubMedCentral: PMC3123651 | DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-10-54
Table 1 Overview of genes Gene name Length (AA) Mut SNP PDB codes (sequence range) Oncogenes AKT1 478 6 5 1UNQ A (1-123), 3CQW A (144-480) BRAF 766 46 3 3D4Q A (433-726), 3NY5 A (153-237) EGFR 1210 22... 9 1YY9 A (25-642), 1XKK A (695-1022) GNAS 394 12 9 1AZS C (1-394) HRAS 189 19 0 4Q21 A (1-189) KIT 976 9 9 2EC8 A (1-519), 3G0E A (544-935) KRAS 188 85 1 3GFT A (1-164) MET 1408 24 30 2UZX B (25-740), 3DKC A (1049-1360) NRAS 189 9 1 3CON A (1-172) PIK3CA 1068 148 17 2RD0 A (1-1068) PTPN11 593 7 6 2SHP A (3-529) RET 1114 24 3 2IVS A (705-1013), 2X2U A (29-270) Tumor Suppressor Genes CDH1 882 17 3 2O72 A (155-367) CDKN2A 156 76 10 1BI7 B (1-156) FBXW7 707 34 4 2OVR B (263-707) MLH1 756 8 3 3NA3 A (1-347) MSH2 934 12 17 2O8B A (1-934) PTEN 403 93 2 1D5R A (8-353) RB1 928 7 9 2R7G A (380-787), 2QDJ A (52-355), 2AZE C (829-874) SMAD4 552 51 3 1DD1 A (285-552) STK11 433 30 1 2WTK C (43-347) TP53 393 826 17 2VUK A (94-312), 1AIE A (326-356) VHL 213 216 16 1LM8 V (54-213) WT1 449 9 3 2PRT A (318-438) Abbreviations: AA, amino acid, Mut, number of mutations, SNP, number of SNPs, PDB, Protein Data Bank Single nucleotide polymorphism dataset ( Snp ) As a control set, we extracted single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for the 24 genes from version 131 of the common variation database dbSNP [ 17 ].
Publication Year: 2011
AST1306, a novel irreversible inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2, exhibits antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo.
(2011) PLoS One 6
PubMed: 21789172 | PubMedCentral: PMC3138742 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021487
Molecular docking simulation The crystal structure of EGFR kinase domain in complex with lapatinib (PDB entry 1XKK)  was used as EGFR target for molecular docking simulation.
Computational modeling of allosteric communication reveals organizing principles of mutation-induced signaling in ABL and EGFR kinases.
(2011) PLoS Comput Biol 7
PubMed: 21998569 | PubMedCentral: PMC3188506 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002179
Allosteric Signatures of Mutation-Induced EGFR Activation In this section, we analyzed allosteric signatures of the EGFR kinase catalytic domain using the results of MD simulations in the following fu... ctional states: the inactive EGFR form (PDB ID 1XKK)  ; the active EGFR form (PDB ID 2J6M)  , the active form of the EGFR-T790M mutant (PDB ID 2JIT)  .
In MD simulations of the ABL and EGFR kinase domains, we used the following crystal structures : PDB ID 1IEP (inactive ABL structure)  , PDB ID 1M52 (active ABL structure)  ,  , PDB ID 2G1T (Src-like inactive ABL structure)  , PDB ID 2Z60 (the active form of the ABL-T315I mutant)  , PDB ID 1XKK (Src/Cdk-like inactive EGFR structure)  , PDB ID 2GS7 (Src/Cdk-like inactive EGFR structure)  , and PDB ID 2J6M (active EGFR structure)  , and PDB ID 2JIT (EGFR-T790M mutant)  .
Structural mapping of residues involved in long-range communication in different functional states of the EGFR catalytic domain: ( A ) the inactive EGFR-WT structure (PDB ID 1XKK); ( B ) the active EGFR-WT structure (PDB ID 2J6M); ( C ) the active form of the EGFR-T790M mutant (PDB ID 2JIT).
The energy landscape analysis of cancer mutations in protein kinases.
PubMed: 21998754 | PubMedCentral: PMC3188581 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026071
The analysis was performed using inhibitor-bound crystal structures of EGFR in the inactive form (PDB ID 1XKK) [ 117 ] and active form (PDB ID 2J6M) [ 118 ] .
The analysis was performed on the unbound form of the crystal structures of EGFR in the inactive form (PDB ID 1XKK) [ 117 ] and active form (PDB ID 2J6M) [ 118 ] .
We observed that highly oncogenic mutations may indeed cause an increase in the local frustration of mutated residues in the inactive autoinhibitory state of ABL (PDB ID 1IEP) [ 90 ] and EGFR (PDB ID 1XKK) [ 117 ] ( Figures 3 , 4 ).
Differential sensitivity of ERBB2 kinase domain mutations towards lapatinib.
PubMed: 22046346 | PubMedCentral: PMC3203921 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026760
( D ) Superposition of two binding modes of lapatinib onto the overlay of figure 2C and display of the T798M atoms as Van der Waals spheres shows how the binding mode seen in 1XKK (cyan) obviously cla... hes with the mutation, but the binding mode of 3BBT (pale blue, ERBB4, which also has threonine as gatekeeper) does not.
Crystal structures of complexes with erlotinib (1M17), lapatinib (1XKK, 3BBT), gefitinib (2ITY, 2ITO, 2ITZ), and AEE788 (2J6M, 2ITP, 2ITT, 2JIU), representing both active and inactive states of the kinase domain, were superimposed and inspected using the graphics program PyMOL ( www.pymol.org )  ,  ,  –  .
Erlotinib binds both inactive and active conformations of the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain.
(2012) Biochem J 448
PubMed: 23101586 | PubMedCentral: PMC3507260 | DOI: 10.1042/BJ20121513
W3–W5 in the erlotinib complex structure lie in a pocket occupied by the (3-fluorobenzyl)oxy group of lapatinib in PDB entry 1XKK.
Surprisingly, docking erlotinib into a crystal structure of the inactive EGFR-TKD (PDB entry 1XKK [ 13 ]), after removing lapatinib from the model, yielded a very similar Glide [ 32 ] score (−9.72 kcal/mol) to that seen for active EGFR-TKD (−9.34 kcal/mol).
As shown in Figure 2 , our structure of inactive EGFR-TKD closely resembles that seen in PDB entry 1XKK [ 13 ] (in complex with lapatinib).
Interestingly, as shown in Figure 3 (B), waters W3–W5 in our structure lie in the same pocket within inactive EGFR-TKD that is occupied by the (3-fluorobenzyl)oxy group of lapatinib in PDB entry 1XKK [ 13 ]; these waters also interact with the EGFR-TKD backbone in parts of the αC helix (Met 742 ) and Phe 832 of the DFG motif.
( B ) Crystal structure from PDB entry 1XKK [ 13 ] showing lapatinib (blue) bound to inactive EGFR-TKD.
Inactive EGFR-TKD was modelled based on PDB entries 2GS7 [ 12 ] and 1XKK [ 13 ].
( B ) The mode of erlotinib binding to inactive EGFR-TKD observed crystallographically (green) is compared with the mode of lapatinib binding to inactive EGFR-TKD in PDB entry 1XKK [ 13 ] (grey), in a view rotated by 180° about a vertical axis compared with that seen in ( A ).
Publication Year: 2012
Lapatinib-binding protein kinases in the African trypanosome: identification of cellular targets for kinase-directed chemical scaffolds.
(2013) PLoS One 8
PubMed: 23437089 | PubMedCentral: PMC3577790 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056150
Modeling of TbLBPKs from a lapatinib-compatible EGFR template (PDB 1xkk) produced structures that are free of steric conflicts or energetically strained regions ( Fig. 4 ).
Publication Year: 2013
Chemotherapeutic Potential of 2-[Piperidinoethoxyphenyl]-3-Phenyl-2H-Benzo(b)pyran in Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer Cells: Action via Prevention of EGFR Activation and Combined Inhibition of PI-3-K/Akt/FOXO and MEK/Erk/AP-1 Pathways.
PubMed: 23840429 | PubMedCentral: PMC3686794 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066246
The protein coordinates of EGFR from the EGFR - lapatinib (GW572016) co-crystal (PDB code: 1XKK)  were considered for investigating the binding modes of AG-1478 and CDRI-85/287.
(E) Docked conformation of CDRI 85/287 analogue with EGFR protein (PDB ID 1XKK).
The molecules were allowed to flexibly dock into the protein coordinates (1XKK) to take their final conformation.
Network understanding of herb medicine via rapid identification of ingredient-target interactions.
(2014) Sci Rep 4
PubMed: 24429698 | PubMedCentral: PMC3893644 | DOI: 10.1038/srep03719
Similar binding mode was also observed in the lapatinib-EGFR complex (PDB ID: 1XKK) 26 .
Publication Year: 2014
Structure-functional prediction and analysis of cancer mutation effects in protein kinases.
(2014) Comput Math Methods Med 2014
PubMed: 24817905 | PubMedCentral: PMC4000980 | DOI: 10.1155/2014/653487
(b) The inactive structures of EGFR (pdb 1XKK, 2GS7), Her2 (pdb id 3PP0, 3RCD), Her3 (pdb id 3LMG,3KEX), Her4 (pdb id 2R4B, 3BBT, 3BCE), Tyk2 (pdb id 3NYX), Tie2 (pdb 2OSC), Met (pdb 2G15), Ron (pdb 3... LS), and Mer kinases (pdb id 2P0C).
We pursued structural modeling of L858R mutant starting from both inactive (pdb entries 1XKK, 2GS7) and active wild-type EGFR structures (pdb entries 2J6M, 2ITX, 2ITW, and 2ITY).
(a) The dynamics profile of the inactive wild-type EGFR (pdb id 1XKK).
PubMed ID is not available.
Published in 2014
Figure 1 Crystal structures of the EGFR ATP-binding pocket with (A) erlotinib (PDB ID: 1M17) 15 and (B) lapatinib (PDB ID: 1XKK) 9 reveal the inhibitor binding modes.
Crystal structures of the kinase domain of EGFR with either erlotinib (1M17) 15 or lapatinib (1XKK) 9 (Figure 1 A,B) show that while the pharmacophore arm is oriented deep in the binding pocket, the 6-position is amenable to chemical modification without perturbing the key conserved contacts of the binding pocket.
Structure-based ensemble-QSAR model: a novel approach to the study of the EGFR tyrosine kinase and its inhibitors.
(2014) Acta Pharmacol Sin 35
PubMed: 24335842 | PubMedCentral: PMC4076596 | DOI: 10.1038/aps.2013.148
Original PDB code Resolution (Å) Mutation Conformation (Inactive or active form) Re-compiled code 1M17 2.60 active 1M17 1M17_W 1XKK 2.40 inactive 1XKK 1XKK_W 2GS7 2.60 V948... inactive 2GS7_A 2GS7_AW 2GS7_B 2GS7_BW 2ITN 2.47 G719S active 2ITN 2ITN_W 2ITN_M 2ITN_WM 2ITO 3.25 G719S inactive 2ITO 2ITO_M 2ITP 2.74 G719S active 2ITP 2ITP_W 2ITP_M 2ITP_WM 2ITQ 2.68 G719S inactive 2ITQ 2ITQ_M 2ITT 2.73 L858R active 2ITT 2ITT_W 2ITT_M 2ITT_WM 2ITU 2.80 L858R active 2ITU 2ITU_W 2ITU_M 2ITU_WM 2ITV 2.47 L858R active 2ITV 2ITV_W 2ITV_M 2ITV_WM 2ITW 2.88 active 2ITW 2ITW_W 2ITX 2.98 active 2ITX 2ITY 3.42 active 2ITY 2ITY_W 2ITZ 2.80 active 2ITZ 2ITZ_W 2J6M 3.10 active 2J6M 2J6M_W 2JIU 3.05 T790M active 2JIU_A 2JIU_AW 2JIU_AM 2JIU_AWM 2RGP 2.00 inactive 2RGP 2RGP_W 3BEL 2.30 inactive 3BEL 3GT8 3.95 V948R inactive 3GT8_A 3GT8_B 3GT8_C 3GT8_D Each new code consists of two parts separated by an underscore.
The design of an orally active, irreversible inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) J Med Chem 2003 46 49 63 12502359 Verdonk ML Mortenson PN Hall RJ Hartshorn MJ Murray CW Protein-ligand docking against non-native protein conformers J Chem Inf Model 2008 48 2214 25 18954138 Tuccinardi T Botta M Giordano A Martinelli A Protein kinases: docking and homology modeling reliability J Chem Inf Model 2010 50 1432 41 20726600 Supplementary Information Figure S1 Alignment of all the 19 EGFR TK crystallography structures used in this work to 1XKK Click here for additional data file.
Binding sites of all the prepared PDB structures (within 5 Å of the bound ligand) were superimposed onto the 1XKK reference structure with the Protein Structure Alignment tool in Maestro to allow direct QSAR building with the docked poses of the ligands.
This result shows that the ligands in 1XKK were similar to the molecules in cluster B with a similarity value of 0.73, and the highest average TPR 1% value for cluster B was obtained with this protein crystal structure.
Structure-based network analysis of activation mechanisms in the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases: the regulatory spine residues are global mediators of structural stability and allosteric interactions.
(2014) PLoS One 9
PubMed: 25427151 | PubMedCentral: PMC4245119 | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113488
Structural differences in the functional regions of the EGFR-WT crystal structures: Cdk/Src-IF1 state (in blue), DFG-in/αC-helix-out (pdb id 1XKK, 2GS7); Cdk/Src-IF2 conformation (in red), DFG... out/αC-helix-out (pdb id 2RF9); and the active conformation (in green), DFG-in/αC-helix-in (pdb id 2ITX, 2J6M).
The inactive EGFR crystal structures included the following pdb entries: pdb id 2GS7 (Cdk/Src-IF1 EGFR-WT in complex with AMP-PNP); pdb id 1XKK (Cdk/Src-IF1, EGFR-WT in complex with Lapatinib); pdb id 2RFE (Cdk/Src-IF1, EGFR-WT in complex with a 40-residue MIG peptide); pdb id 2RF9 (Cdk/Src-IF2, EGFR-WT in complex with a 60-residue MIG6 peptide); pdb id 4I20 (Cdk/Src-IF2, Apo EGFR-L858R, V948R); pdb id 4I1Z (Cdk/Src-IF2, Apo EGFR-L858R/T790M, V948R); and pdb id 4I21(Cdk/Src-IF2,EGFR-L858R/T790M in complex with MIG6).
Conformational mobility profiles of EGFR-WT are shown for the inactive Cdk/Src-IF1 form (pdb id 1XKK, left upper panel), the inactive Cdk/Src-IF2 state (pdb id 2RF9, middle upper panel) and the active conformation (pdb id 2ITX, right upper panel).
The computed B-factors describe time-averaged fluctuations of heavy atoms obtained from simulations of (A) Cdk/Src-IF1 EGFR-WT (pdb id 1XKK, in blue), (B) Cdk/Src-IF2 EGFR-WT (pdb id 2RF9, in red), (C) active EGFR-WT (pdb id 2ITX, in green), (D) active EGFR-L858R (pdb id 2ITV, in red), (E) active EGFR-T790M (pdb id 2JIT, in green), (F) inactive EGFR-L858R (pdb id 4I20, in red), (G) inactive EGFR-L858R/T790M (pdb id 4I21, in green), (H) inactive ErbB4-WT (pdb id 3BBT, in green), (I) active ErbB4-WT (pdb id 3BCE, in maroon).
(A) The computed B-factors describe time-averaged residue fluctuations obtained from simulations of Cdk/Src-IF1 EGFR-WT (pdb id 1XKK, in blue), Cdk/Src-IF2 EGFR-WT structure (pdb id 2RF9, in red), and the active EGFR-WT structure (pdb id 2ITX, in green).
ProKinO: a unified resource for mining the cancer kinome.
(2015) Hum Mutat 36
PubMed: 25382819 | PubMedCentral: PMC4342772 | DOI: 10.1002/humu.22726
C: Locations of EGFR arginine variants in the crystal structure (PDB:1XKK).
Publication Year: 2015
Published in 2015
( C ) Mapping the ligands (Erlotinib in 1M17 EGFR protein and lapatinib in 1XKK EGFR protein) into subregions of the binding pockets in the 3D view.
Table 2 General information about the mutations of the 42 HER family protein kinase domain PDB ID a TKI-sensitive TKI-resistant Protein conformation G719S LREA L858R T790M DFG-motif αC position (Å) b EGFR 4LQM − L––– + − DFG-in 7.690 4LRM − − − − DFG-in 8.028 4LL0 − − + + DFG-in 9.460 4LI5 − − − − DFG-in 8.266 4JQ7 − − − − DFG-in 8.843 4JQ8 − − − − DFG-in 8.071 4JR3 − − − DFG-in 7.903 4JRV − L––– − − DFG-in 7.929 3W32 − − − − DFG-out 12.717 3W33 − − − − DFG-out 12.846 3W2O − − + + DFG-in 8.065 3W2P − − + + DFG-in 8.109 3W2Q − − + + DFG-in 8.394 3W2R − − + + DFG-out 12.056 4I22 − LRKA + + DFG-out 12.384 4I23 − L––A − − DFG-in 7.750 4I24 − L––A − + DFG-out 12.399 4HJO − − − − DFG-out 12.327 4G5J − K––– − − DFG-in 7.807 4G5P − − − + DFG-in 8.786 3UG2 − –––– − + DFG-in 8.308 3POZ − LA–– − − DFG-out 12.430 3LZB − − − − DFG-out 11.673 3IKA − − − + DFG-in 9.314 2RGP − LR–K − − DFG-out 12.098 3BEL − − − − DFG-out 12.033 2JIU − − − + DFG-in 8.868 2JIV − − − + DFG-out-like 12.634 2ITO + − − − DFG-in 7.446 2ITP + − − − DFG-in 7.673 2ITT − − + − DFG-in 7.682 2ITY − − − − DFG-in 7.481 2ITZ − − + − DFG-in 7.717 2J6M − − − − DFG-in 7.647 2J5E − − − − DFG-in 7.394 2J5F − − − − DFG-in 7.642 1XKK − LREK − − DFG-out 11.967 1M17 − − − − DFG-in 8.037 HER2 3RCD − LR–– − − DFG-out 10.997 HER3 4OTW − IEDK L858V − DFG-out 13.635 HER4 2R4B − LN–– − − DFG-out 11.299 3BBT − LK–– − − DFG-out 12.537 Notes: a All the HER protein kinase crystal complexes collected from the PDB (up to 05/28/2014); b The distance between the αC carbon atoms of D xDFG.81 and E αC.24 .
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