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Crystal structure of Human Glucokinase in complex with a small molecule activator.
Biology and Chemistry Report
4IXC
  •   Structure Details   Hide

    Structure Keywords

    Keywords TRANSFERASE/TRANSFERASE INHIBITOR
    Text Allosteric Regulation, Binding Sites, Catalytic Domain, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Enzyme Activators, Glucokinase, Hexokinase, Humans, Models, Molecular, Mutation, Protein Conformation, TRANSFERASE-TRANSFERASE INHIBITOR complex

    Polymeric Molecules

    Chain A
    Description Glucokinase isoform 3 
    Fragment GLUCOKINASE 
    Mutation E27A E28A E51A E52A 
    Nonstandard Linkage no 
    Nonstandard Monomers no 
    Polymer Type polypeptide(L) 
    Formula Weight 50808.1 
    Source Method genetically manipulated  
    Entity Name Hexokinase type IV, HK IV, Hexokinase-4, HK4, Hexokinase-D 

    Ligands and Prosthetic Groups

    ID Name Chemical Formula Weight Ligand Structure
    1JD  (2S)-2-{[1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]oxy}-N-(5-methylpyridin-2-yl)-3-(propan-2-yloxy)propanamide  C22 H22 Cl N7 O3   467.91  View 
    GLC  ALPHA-D-GLUCOSE  C6 H12 O6   180.16  View 
    NA  SODIUM ION  Na   22.99  View 
     
  •   Protein Details   Hide

    UniProtKB Information

    Chain SWS/UNP ID SWS/UNP Accession(s)
    A HXK4_HUMAN A4D2J2     

    Keywords and Names

    Chain(s) RCSB Name UniProtKB Name UniProtKB Keywords

    EC, Associated Pathways and Catalytic Sites

    Chain(s) IUBMB KEGG BioCyc
    2.7.1.2      
    C: Cellular Location | F: Molecular Function | P: Biological Process
    Chain A
    GO ID   Ontology GO Term Definition
    1678   Cellular Glucose Homeostasis  A Cellular Homeostatic Process Involved in the Maintenance of an Internal Steady State of Glucose Within a Cell or Between a Cell and Its External Environment. 
    5975   Carbohydrate Metabolic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Involving Carbohydrates Any of a Group of Organic Compounds Based of the General Formula Cx(h2o)y. Includes the Formation of Carbohydrate Derivatives by the Addition of a Carbohydrate Residue to Another Molecule. 
    5978   Glycogen Biosynthetic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Resulting in the Formation of Glycogen a Polydisperse Highly Branched Glucan Composed of Chains of D Glucose Residues. 
    6003   Fructose 2 6 Bisphosphate Metabolic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Involving Fructose 2 6 Bisphosphate. the D Enantiomer Is an Important Regulator of the Glycolytic and Gluconeogenic Pathways. It Inhibits Fructose 1 6 Bisphosphatase and Activates Phosphofructokinase. 
    6006   Glucose Metabolic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Involving Glucose the Aldohexose Gluco Hexose. D Glucose Is Dextrorotatory and Is Sometimes Known As Dextrose; It Is an Important Source of Energy For Living Organisms and Is Found Free As Well As Combined in Homo and Hetero Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides. 
    6096   Glycolytic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Resulting in the Breakdown of a Carbohydrate Into Pyruvate with the Concomitant Production of a Small Amount of Atp. Glycolysis Begins with the Metabolism of a Carbohydrate to Generate Products That Can Enter the Pathway and Ends with the Production of Pyruvate. Pyruvate May Be Converted to Acetyl Coenzyme a Ethanol Lactate or Other Small Molecules. 
    6110   Regulation of Glycolytic Process  Any Process That Modulates the Frequency Rate or Extent of Glycolysis. 
    6739   Nadp Metabolic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Involving Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate a Coenzyme Involved in Many Redox and Biosynthetic Reactions; Metabolism May Be of Either the Oxidized Form Nadp or the Reduced Form Nadph. 
    7204   Positive Regulation of Cytosolic Calcium Ion Concentration  Any Process That Increases the Concentration of Calcium Ions in the Cytosol. 
    8152   Metabolic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Including Anabolism and Catabolism by Which Living Organisms Transform Chemical Substances. Metabolic Processes Typically Transform Small Molecules But Also Include Macromolecular Processes Such As DNA Repair and Replication and Protein Synthesis and Degradation. 
    8645   Hexose Transport  The Directed Movement of Hexose Into Out of or Within a Cell or Between Cells by Means of Some Agent Such As a Transporter or Pore. Hexoses Are Any Aldoses with a Chain of Six Carbon Atoms in the Molecule. 
    9749   Response to Glucose  Any Process That Results in a Change in State or Activity of a Cell or an Organism (in Terms of Movement Secretion Enzyme Production Gene Expression Etc.) As a Result of a Glucose Stimulus. 
    10827   Regulation of Glucose Transport  Any Process That Modulates the Frequency Rate or Extent of Glucose Transport. Glucose Transport Is the Directed Movement of the Hexose Monosaccharide Glucose Into Out of or Within a Cell or Between Cells by Means of Some Agent Such As a Transporter or Pore. 
    15758   Glucose Transport  The Directed Movement of the Hexose Monosaccharide Glucose Into Out of or Within a Cell or Between Cells by Means of Some Agent Such As a Transporter or Pore. 
    16310   Phosphorylation  The Process of Introducing a Phosphate Group Into a Molecule Usually with the Formation of a Phosphoric Ester a Phosphoric Anhydride or a Phosphoric Amide. 
    19932   Second Messenger Mediated Signaling  Any Intracellular Signal Transduction in Which the Signal Is Passed On Within the Cell Via a Second Messenger; a Small Molecule or Ion That Can Be Quickly Generated or Released From Intracellular Stores and Can Diffuse Within the Cell. Second Messenger Signaling Includes Production or Release of the Second Messenger and Effectors Downstream of the Second Messenger That Further Transmit the Signal Within the Cell. 
    31018   Endocrine Pancreas Development  The Process Whose Specific Outcome Is the Progression of the Endocrine Pancreas Over Time From Its Formation to the Mature Structure. the Endocrine Pancreas Is Made Up of Islet Cells That Produce Insulin Glucagon and Somatostatin. 
    32024   Positive Regulation of Insulin Secretion  Any Process That Activates or Increases the Frequency Rate or Extent of the Regulated Release of Insulin. 
    32811   Negative Regulation of Epinephrine Secretion  Any Process That Stops Prevents or Reduces the Frequency Rate or Extent of the Regulated Release of Epinephrine. 
    32869   Cellular Response to Insulin Stimulus  Any Process That Results in a Change in State or Activity of a Cell (in Terms of Movement Secretion Enzyme Production Gene Expression Etc.) As a Result of an Insulin Stimulus. Insulin Is a Polypeptide Hormone Produced by the Islets of Langerhans of the Pancreas in Mammals and by the Homologous Organs of Other Organisms. 
    42149   Cellular Response to Glucose Starvation  Any Process That Results in a Change in State or Activity of a Cell (in Terms of Movement Secretion Enzyme Production Gene Expression Etc.) As a Result of Deprivation of Glucose. 
    42327   Positive Regulation of Phosphorylation  Any Process That Activates or Increases the Frequency Rate or Extent of Addition of Phosphate Groups to a Molecule. 
    42593   Glucose Homeostasis  Any Process Involved in the Maintenance of an Internal Steady State of Glucose Within an Organism or Cell. 
    43266   Regulation of Potassium Ion Transport  Any Process That Modulates the Frequency Rate or Extent of the Directed Movement of Potassium Ions (k+) Into Out of or Within a Cell or Between Cells by Means of Some Agent Such As a Transporter or Pore. 
    44281   Small Molecule Metabolic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Involving Small Molecules Any Low Molecular Weight Monomeric Non Encoded Molecule. 
    44320   Cellular Response to Leptin Stimulus  Any Process That Results in a Change in State or Activity of a Cell (in Terms of Movement Secretion Enzyme Production Gene Expression Etc.) As a Result of a Leptin Stimulus. Leptin Is a Hormone Manufactured Primarily in the Adipocytes of White Adipose Tissue and the Level of Circulating Leptin Is Directly Proportional to the Total Amount of Fat in the Body. It Plays a Key Role in Regulating Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure Including Appetite and Metabolism. 
    45721   Negative Regulation of Gluconeogenesis  Any Process That Stops Prevents or Reduces the Frequency Rate or Extent of Gluconeogenesis. 
    45725   Positive Regulation of Glycogen Biosynthetic Process  Any Process That Activates or Increases the Frequency Rate or Extent of the Chemical Reactions and Pathways Resulting in the Formation of Glycogen. 
    45821   Positive Regulation of Glycolytic Process  Any Process That Activates or Increases the Frequency Rate or Extent of Glycolysis. 
    46835   Carbohydrate Phosphorylation  The Process of Introducing a Phosphate Group Into a Carbohydrate Any Organic Compound Based On the General Formula Cx(h2o)y. 
    50796   Regulation of Insulin Secretion  Any Process That Modulates the Frequency Rate or Extent of the Regulated Release of Insulin. 
    51156   Glucose 6 Phosphate Metabolic Process  The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Involving Glucose 6 Phosphate a Monophosphorylated Derivative of Glucose with the Phosphate Group Attached to C 6. 
    51594   Detection of Glucose  The Series of Events in Which a Glucose Stimulus Is Received by a Cell and Converted Into a Molecular Signal. 
    55085   Transmembrane Transport  The Process in Which a Solute Is Transported From One Side of a Membrane to the Other. 
    55088   Lipid Homeostasis  Any Process Involved in the Maintenance of an Internal Steady State of Lipid Within an Organism or Cell. 
    70509   Calcium Ion Import  The Directed Movement of Calcium Ions Into a Cell or Organelle. 
    5634   Nucleus  A Membrane Bounded Organelle of Eukaryotic Cells in Which Chromosomes Are Housed and Replicated. in Most Cells the Nucleus Contains All of the Cell's Chromosomes Except the Organellar Chromosomes and Is the Site of RNA Synthesis and Processing. in Some Species or in Specialized Cell Types RNA Metabolism or DNA Replication May Be Absent. 
    5654   Nucleoplasm  That Part of the Nuclear Content Other Than the Chromosomes or the Nucleolus. 
    5737   Cytoplasm  All of the Contents of a Cell Excluding the Plasma Membrane and Nucleus But Including Other Subcellular Structures. 
    5739   Mitochondrion  A Semiautonomous Self Replicating Organelle That Occurs in Varying Numbers Shapes and Sizes in the Cytoplasm of Virtually All Eukaryotic Cells. It Is Notably the Site of Tissue Respiration. 
    5829   Cytosol  The Part of the Cytoplasm That Does Not Contain Organelles But Which Does Contain Other Particulate Matter Such As Protein Complexes. 
    5884   Actin Filament  A Filamentous Structure Formed of a Two Stranded Helical Polymer of the Protein Actin and Associated Proteins. Actin Filaments Are a Major Component of the Contractile Apparatus of Skeletal Muscle and the Microfilaments of the Cytoskeleton of Eukaryotic Cells. the Filaments Comprising Polymerized Globular Actin Molecules Appear As Flexible Structures with a Diameter of 5 9 Nm. They Are Organized Into a Variety of Linear Bundles Two Dimensional Networks and Three Dimensional Gels. in the Cytoskeleton They Are Most Highly Concentrated in the Cortex of the Cell Just Beneath the Plasma Membrane. 
    5938   Cell Cortex  The Region of a Cell That Lies Just Beneath the Plasma Membrane and Often But Not Always Contains a Network of Actin Filaments and Associated Proteins. 
    30141   Secretory Granule  A Small Subcellular Vesicle Surrounded by a Membrane That Is Formed From the Golgi Apparatus and Contains a Highly Concentrated Protein Destined For Secretion. Secretory Granules Move Towards the Periphery of the Cell and Upon Stimulation Their Membranes Fuse with the Cell Membrane and Their Protein Load Is Exteriorized. Processing of the Contained Protein May Take Place in Secretory Granules. 
    45180   Basal Cortex  The Region That Lies Just Beneath the Plasma Membrane On the Basal Edge of a Cell. 
    166   Nucleotide Binding  Interacting Selectively and Non Covalently with a Nucleotide Any Compound Consisting of a Nucleoside That Is Esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an Oligophosphate At Any Hydroxyl Group On the Ribose or Deoxyribose. 
    287   Magnesium Ion Binding  Interacting Selectively and Non Covalently with Magnesium (mg) Ions. 
    3824   Catalytic Activity  Catalysis of a Biochemical Reaction At Physiological Temperatures. in Biologically Catalyzed Reactions the Reactants Are Known As Substrates and the Catalysts Are Naturally Occurring Macromolecular Substances Known As Enzymes. Enzymes Possess Specific Binding Sites For Substrates and Are Usually Composed Wholly or Largely of Protein But RNA That Has Catalytic Activity (ribozyme) Is Often Also Regarded As Enzymatic. 
    4340   Glucokinase Activity  Catalysis of the Reaction: ATP + D Glucose = Adp + D Glucose 6 Phosphate. 
    4396   Hexokinase Activity  Catalysis of the Reaction: ATP + D Hexose = Adp + D Hexose 6 Phosphate. 
    5515   Protein Binding  Interacting Selectively and Non Covalently with Any Protein or Protein Complex (a Complex of Two or More Proteins That May Include Other Nonprotein Molecules). 
    5524   ATP Binding  Interacting Selectively and Non Covalently with ATP Adenosine 5' Triphosphate a Universally Important Coenzyme and Enzyme Regulator. 
    5536   Glucose Binding  Interacting Selectively and Non Covalently with the D or L Enantiomer of Glucose. 
    8865   Fructokinase Activity  Catalysis of the Reaction: ATP + D Fructose = Adp + D Fructose 6 Phosphate. 
    16301   Kinase Activity  Catalysis of the Transfer of a Phosphate Group Usually From ATP to a Substrate Molecule. 
    16740   Transferase Activity  Catalysis of the Transfer of a Group E.g. a Methyl Group Glycosyl Group Acyl Group Phosphorus Containing or Other Groups From One Compound (generally Regarded As the Donor) to Another Compound (generally Regarded As the Acceptor). Transferase Is the Systematic Name For Any Enzyme of EC Class 2. 
    16773   Phosphotransferase Activity Alcohol Group As Acceptor  Catalysis of the Transfer of a Phosphorus Containing Group From One Compound (donor) to an Alcohol Group (acceptor). 
    19158   Mannokinase Activity  Catalysis of the Reaction: ATP + D Mannose = Adp + D Mannose 6 Phosphate. 
    19903   Protein Phosphatase Binding  Interacting Selectively and Non Covalently with Any Protein Phosphatase. 
    43531   Adp Binding  Interacting Selectively and Non Covalently with Adp Adenosine 5' Diphosphate. 


     
  •   Gene Details   Hide

    Genetic Source

    Chain A
    Common Name Human
    Scientific Name Homo sapiens  
    Gene gck
    Host Scientific Name Escherichia coli  


    Genome Information

    Chromosome Locus Gene ID Gene Name Symbol
    7 7p15.3-p15.1 2645     glucokinase (hexokinase 4) GCK