A Programmed Cell Death Process Which Begins When a Cell Receives an Internal (e.g. DNA Damage) or External Signal (e.g. an Extracellular Death Ligand) and Proceeds Through a Series of Biochemical Events (signaling Pathway Phase) Which Trigger an Execution Phase. the Execution Phase Is the Last Step of an Apoptotic Process and Is Typically Characterized by Rounding Up of the Cell Retraction of Pseudopodes Reduction of Cellular Volume (pyknosis) Chromatin Condensation Nuclear Fragmentation (karyorrhexis) Plasma Membrane Blebbing and Fragmentation of the Cell Into Apoptotic Bodies. When the Execution Phase Is Completed the Cell Has Died.
Any Protein Maturation Process Achieved by the Cleavage of a Peptide Bond or Bonds Within a Protein. Protein Maturation Is the Process Leading to the Attainment of the Full Functional Capacity of a Protein.
Organized Structure of Distinctive Morphology and Function Bounded by a Single or Double Lipid Bilayer Membrane and Occurring Within the Cell. Includes the Nucleus Mitochondria Plastids Vacuoles and Vesicles. Excludes the Plasma Membrane.
Catalysis of a Biochemical Reaction At Physiological Temperatures. in Biologically Catalyzed Reactions the Reactants Are Known As Substrates and the Catalysts Are Naturally Occurring Macromolecular Substances Known As Enzymes. Enzymes Possess Specific Binding Sites For Substrates and Are Usually Composed Wholly or Largely of Protein But RNA That Has Catalytic Activity (ribozyme) Is Often Also Regarded As Enzymatic.
Catalysis of the Hydrolysis of Internal Alpha Peptide Bonds in a Polypeptide Chain by a Catalytic Mechanism That Involves a Catalytic Triad Consisting of a Serine Nucleophile That Is Activated by a Proton Relay Involving an Acidic Residue (e.g. Aspartate or Glutamate) and a Basic Residue (usually Histidine).
Catalysis of the Hydrolysis of a Peptide Bond. a Peptide Bond Is a Covalent Bond Formed When the Carbon Atom From the Carboxyl Group of One Amino Acid Shares Electrons with the Nitrogen Atom From the Amino Group of a Second Amino Acid.
Catalysis of the Hydrolysis of Peptide Bonds in a Polypeptide Chain by a Catalytic Mechanism That Involves a Catalytic Triad Consisting of a Serine Nucleophile That Is Activated by a Proton Relay Involving an Acidic Residue (e.g. Aspartate or Glutamate) and a Basic Residue (usually Histidine).