The Covalent Alteration of One or More Amino Acids Occurring in Proteins Peptides and Nascent Polypeptides (co Translational Post Translational Modifications) Occurring At the Level of an Individual Cell. Includes the Modification of Charged Trnas That Are Destined to Occur in a Protein (pre Translation Modification).
The Directed Movement of Substances (such As Macromolecules Small Molecules Ions) Into Out of or Within a Cell or Between Cells or Within a Multicellular Organism by Means of Some Agent Such As a Transporter or Pore.
The Process in Which Cells Digest Parts of Their Own Cytoplasm; Allows For Both Recycling of Macromolecular Constituents Under Conditions of Cellular Stress and Remodeling the Intracellular Structure For Cell Differentiation.
The Major Inducible Pathway For the General Turnover of Cytoplasmic Constituents in Eukaryotic Cells It Is Also Responsible For the Degradation of Active Cytoplasmic Enzymes and Organelles During Nutrient Starvation. Macroautophagy Involves the Formation of Double Membrane Bounded Autophagosomes Which Enclose the Cytoplasmic Constituent Targeted For Degradation in a Membrane Bounded Structure. Autophagosomes Then Fuse with a Lysosome (or Vacuole) Releasing Single Membrane Bounded Autophagic Bodies That Are Then Degraded Within the Lysosome (or Vacuole). Though Once Thought to Be a Purely Non Selective Process It Appears That Some Types of Macroautophagy E.g. Macropexophagy Macromitophagy May Involve Selective Targeting of the Targets to Be Degraded.
A Constitutive Biosynthetic Process That Occurs Under Nutrient Rich Conditions in Which Two Resident Vacuolar Hydrolases Aminopeptidase I and Alpha Mannosidase Are Sequestered Into Vesicles; These Vesicles Are Transported to and Then Fuse with the Vacuole. This Pathway Is Mostly Observed in Yeast.
A Type of Nucleophagy Distinct From Piecemeal Microautophagy of the Nucleus (pnm) Where the Nuclear Material Is Delivered to the Vacuole/lysosome For Breakdown and Recycling Later Than Observed For Pnm.
The Part of a Cell or Its Extracellular Environment in Which a Gene Product Is Located. a Gene Product May Be Located in One or More Parts of a Cell and Its Location May Be As Specific As a Particular Macromolecular Complex That Is a Stable Persistent Association of Macromolecules That Function Together.