The Cellular Process in Which a Signal Is Conveyed to Trigger a Change in the Activity or State of a Cell. Signal Transduction Begins with Reception of a Signal (e.g. a Ligand Binding to a Receptor or Receptor Activation by a Stimulus Such As Light) or For Signal Transduction in the Absence of Ligand Signal Withdrawal or the Activity of a Constitutively Active Receptor. Signal Transduction Ends with Regulation of a Downstream Cellular Process E.g. Regulation of Transcription or Regulation of a Metabolic Process. Signal Transduction Covers Signaling From Receptors Located On the Surface of the Cell and Signaling Via Molecules Located Within the Cell. For Signaling Between Cells Signal Transduction Is Restricted to Events At and Within the Receiving Cell.
The Living Contents of a Cell; the Matter Contained Within (but Not Including) the Plasma Membrane Usually Taken to Exclude Large Vacuoles and Masses of Secretory or Ingested Material. in Eukaryotes It Includes the Nucleus and Cytoplasm.
A Process That Is Carried Out At the Cellular Level Which Results in the Assembly Arrangement of Constituent Parts or Disassembly of Cytoskeletal Structures Comprising Actin Filaments and Their Associated Proteins.
Interacting Selectively and Non Covalently with Rho Protein Any Member of the Rho Subfamily of the Ras Superfamily of Monomeric Gtpases. Proteins in the Rho Subfamily Are Involved in Relaying Signals From Cell Surface Receptors to the Actin Cytoskeleton.