The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Involving Carbohydrates Any of a Group of Organic Compounds Based of the General Formula Cx(h2o)y. Includes the Formation of Carbohydrate Derivatives by the Addition of a Carbohydrate Residue to Another Molecule.
The Chemical Reactions and Pathways Resulting in the Breakdown of a Carbohydrate Into Pyruvate with the Concomitant Production of a Small Amount of ATP and the Reduction of Nad(p) to Nad(p)h. Glycolysis Begins with the Metabolism of a Carbohydrate to Generate Products That Can Enter the Pathway and Ends with the Production of Pyruvate. Pyruvate May Be Converted to Acetyl Coenzyme a Ethanol Lactate or Other Small Molecules.
The Space External to the Outermost Structure of a Cell. For Cells Without External Protective or External Encapsulating Structures This Refers to Space Outside of the Plasma Membrane. This Term Covers the Host Cell Environment Outside an Intracellular Parasite.
The Rigid or Semi Rigid Envelope Lying Outside the Cell Membrane of Plant Fungal Most Prokaryotic Cells and Some Protozoan Parasites Maintaining Their Shape and Protecting Them From Osmotic Lysis. in Plants It Is Made of Cellulose and Often Lignin; in Fungi It Is Composed Largely of Polysaccharides; in Bacteria It Is Composed of Peptidoglycan; in Protozoan Parasites Such As Giardia Species It's Made of Carbohydrates and Proteins.
Catalysis of a Biochemical Reaction At Physiological Temperatures. in Biologically Catalyzed Reactions the Reactants Are Known As Substrates and the Catalysts Are Naturally Occurring Macromolecular Substances Known As Enzymes. Enzymes Possess Specific Binding Sites For Substrates and Are Usually Composed Wholly or Largely of Protein But RNA That Has Catalytic Activity (ribozyme) Is Often Also Regarded As Enzymatic.
Catalysis of the Cleavage of C C C O C N and Other Bonds by Other Means Than by Hydrolysis or Oxidation or Conversely Adding a Group to a Double Bond. They Differ From Other Enzymes in That Two Substrates Are Involved in One Reaction Direction But Only One in the Other Direction. When Acting On the Single Substrate a Molecule Is Eliminated and This Generates Either a New Double Bond or a New Ring.