An economic analysis performed by the Rutgers Office of Research Analytics in 2017 noted that a reasonable estimate to replicate the PDB data archive at the time was $12 billion (PDF).
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RCSB PDB is funded by
the National Science Foundation (DBI-1832184),
the US Department of Energy (DE-SC0019749),
and the National Cancer Institute,
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases,
and National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant R01GM133198.