Chemical Component Summary

Identifierspyridine-3-carboxylic acid
FormulaC6 H5 N O2
Molecular Weight123.11
Isomeric SMILESOC(=O)c1cccnc1

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count14
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count14
Aromatic Bond Count6
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00627 Different stereochemistry
  • approved
  • investigational
  • nutraceutical
DescriptionA water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has pellagra-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties. [PubChem]
  • 3-carboxypyridine
  • 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid
  • 3-Pyridylcarboxylic acid
  • Acide Nicotinique
  • Acido nicotinico
Brand Names
  • Acti-niacin Caplet 500mg
  • Advicor
  • American Eagle Energizer Plus Vitamin Supplement Drink
  • American Plu
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the treatment of type IV and V hyperlipidemia. It is indicated as ajunctive therapy.
PharmacologyNiacin and niacinamide are indicated for prevention and treatment of vitamin B3 deficiency states. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) also acts to reduce LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. The magnitude of individual lipid and lipoprotein responses may be influenced by the severity and type of underlying lipid abnormality. The increase in total HDL is associated with a shift in the distribution of HDL subfractions (as defined by ultra-centrifugation) with an increase in the HDL2:HDL3 ratio and an increase in apolipoprotein A-I content. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) treatment also decreases the serum levels of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B), the major protein component of the VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and LDL fractions, and of lipoprotein-a, a variant form of LDL independently associated with coronary risk.
Mechanism of actionNiacin binds to Nicotinate D-ribonucleotide phyrophsopate phosphoribosyltransferase, Nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, Nicotinate N-methyltransferase and the Niacin receptor. Niacin is the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are vital cofactors for dozens of enzymes. The mechanism by which niacin exerts its lipid lowering effects is not entirely understood, but may involve several actions, including a decrease in esterification of hepatic triglycerides. Niacin treatment also decreases the serum levels of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B), the major protein component of the VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and LDL fractions.
Route of administration
  • Intramuscular; Intravenous
  • Oral
  • Topical
  • Acids, Heterocyclic
  • Antimetabolites
  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
  • C10BA01
  • C10AD52
  • C04AC01
  • C10AD02
  • 24:06.92
  • 88:08.00
CAS number59-67-6
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682