A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia. [PubChem]
Abacavir Sulfate, Lamivudine and Zidovudine
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunovirus (HIV) infections.
Zidovudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Zidovudine is phosphorylated to active metabolites that compete for incorporation into viral DNA. They inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme competitively and act as a chain terminator of DNA synthesis. The lack of a 3'-OH group in the incorporated nucleoside analogue prevents the formation of the 5' to 3' phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, and therefore, the viral DNA growth is terminated.
Mechanism of action
Zidovudine, a structural analog of thymidine, is a prodrug that must be phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP). It inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) via DNA chain termination after incorporation of the nucleotide analogue. It competes with the natural substrate dGTP and incorporates itself into viral DNA. It is also a weak inhibitor of cellular DNA polymerase α and γ.
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison
T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682