Linagliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor developed by Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of type II diabetes [Wikipedia]. Two pharmacological characteristics that sets linagliptin apart from other DPP-4 inhibitors is that it has a non-linear pharmacokinetic profile and is not primarily eliminated by the renal system. FDA approved on May 2, 2011.
Linagliptin is used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Linagliptin is a more potent inhibitor of DPP-4 than other drugs that belong to the same class with an IC50 of 1 nM. In comparison, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, and vildagliptin have an IC50 of 19, 50, and 62 nM respectively. A dose of 2.5 and 5 mg reduces the activity of DPP-4 by 72.7% and 86.1% from baseline respectively in healthy male subjects. In diabetes patients, a dose of 5 and 10 mg inhibits >90% of DPP-4. Linagliptin is also selectively inhibits DPP-4 as indicated by the lack of DPP-8 or DPP-9 inhibition at therapeutic exposures in vitro.
Mechanism of action
Linagliptin is a competitive and reversible dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 enzyme inhibitor that slows the breakdown of insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 for better glycemic control in diabetes patients. GLP and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones that increase the production and release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells and decrease the release of glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells. This results in a overall decrease in glucose production in the liver and increase an of insulin in a glucose-dependent manner.
Route of administration
Alimentary Tract and Metabolism
Blood Glucose Lowering Drugs, Excl. Insulins
Chemical Actions and Uses
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
Drugs Used in Diabetes
Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison
T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682