A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group. [PubChem]
Hyperstat Inj 15mg/ml
Proglycem Susp 50mg/ml
Humans and other mammals
Used parentally to treat hypertensive emergencies. Also used to treat hypoglycemia secondary to insulinoma.
Diazoxide is a potassium channel activator, which causes local relaxation in smooth muscle by increasing membrane permeability to potassium ions. This switches off voltage-gated calcium ion channels which inhibits the generation of an action potential.
Mechanism of action
As a diuretic, diazoxide inhibits active chloride reabsorption at the early distal tubule via the Na-Cl cotransporter, resulting in an increase in the excretion of sodium, chloride, and water. Thiazides like diazoxide also inhibit sodium ion transport across the renal tubular epithelium through binding to the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride transporter. This results in an increase in potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism. The antihypertensive mechanism of diazoxide is less well understood although it may be mediated through its action on carbonic anhydrases in the smooth muscle or through its action on the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel, also found in the smooth muscle. As a antihypoglycemic, diazoxide inhibits insulin release from the pancreas, probably by opening potassium channels in the beta cell membrane.
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison
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